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Monday, January 27, 2020

Prelims booster(Micro notes), current affairs with static portions - weekly Compilation( 20 January-26 January)

Northern white rhinoceros
Northern white rhinoceros
  • Researchers had created another embryo the third of the nearly extinct northern white rhino, a remarkable success in an ongoing global mission to keep the species from going extinct.
  • The northern white rhinoceros, is one of two subspecies of the white rhinoceros (the other -southern white rhinoceros). 
  • Found in several countries in East and Central Africa south of the Sahara.
  • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the subspecies is considered Critically Endangered.
Steppe eagle
  • A lone endangered steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) has been sighted by a group of birdwatchers
  • It is also the National bird (animal) of Egypt.
  • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), it is considered   Endangered.
  • It is also the National bird (animal) of Egypt.
Yada Yada alphavirus
  • Yada Yada is an alphavirus, a group of viruses that the researchers described as “small, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses.
  • Alphavirus are transmitted primarily by mosquitoes and (are) pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts”.
  • Yada Yada does not pose a threat to human beings.
Blockchain Technology
  • A new Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Blockchain Technology, which will strive to adapt emerging technology to create e-governance solutions is established in Bangalore 
  • Centre of Excellence (CoE)  by National Informatics Centre (NIC) is the third such centre, following -Data Analytics and Artificial Intelligence.
  • A blockchain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptography.
  • The technology supports cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, and the transfer of any data or digital asset.
Kerala’s move to challenge CAA 
  • Recent controversy concerning the Kerala government’s move to the Supreme Court under Article 131 without first informing Governor to challenge the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019.
  • Article 131 : Original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court,means that Court has the power and authority to address, hear and rule a decision in the initial instance
  • Under Article 167, Chief Minister’s duty to communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration and proposals for legislation and Governor may need to ask a top bureaucrat or the head of the police force for a report on a major incident or development, but even that should be for the limited purpose of getting an accurate picture before sending a report to the Centre.
Global social mobility report
  • It can be understood as the movement in personal circumstances either “upwards” or “downwards” of an individual in relation to those of their parents.
  • World Economic Forum has come out with its first-ever Global Social Mobility Report.
  • The report has ranked India a lowly 76 out of the 82 countries profiled.
  • The Nordic nations hold the top five spots, Denmark in the first place.
  • Most countries underperform in four areas: fair wages, social protection, working conditions and lifelong learning.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons(NPT)
  • The NPT is a landmark international treaty on only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States.
  • It's objectives are:- prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
  • Treaty establishes a safeguards system under the responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Hyperloop
Hyperloop
  • The proposed Pune-Mumbai Hyperloop project, an ultra-modern transport system that will reduce the travelling time between the two cities, may be scrapped by the state government.
  • It is a transportation system where a pod-like vehicle is propelled through a near-vacuum tube connecting cities at speeds matching that of an aircraft.
  • The hyperloop concept is a brainchild of Tesla founder Elon Musk.
Carbon Disclosure Project(CDP)
  • The CDP is a global disclosure system that enables companies, cities, states and regions to measure and manage their environmental impacts.
  • It's  aimed at measuring the carbon reduction activities undertaken by different companies and firms operating in various countries across the globe.
  • Carbon disclosure project India  has released a annual report  base on carbon reduction activities of companies.
  • countries performance USA top>Japan>UK>France.
  • The boards of 98% of the firms directly monitor climate change risks with top management integrating these concerns in performance evaluation.
  • 2/3rd of the 59 firms that were surveyed use climate analysis tools to formulate their business strategies.
  • Indian farms key focus area -renewable energy 23 companies reported renewable energy target in in 2019, a 44% rise over 2018 and Infosys, Dalmia Cement and Tata Motors have reported 100% renewable energy consumption.
Time to Care report
  • A report titled- “Time to Care”-has been released by Oxfam International base on  the alleviation of global poverty.
  • world had 2,153 billionaires in the world in 2019 ,number of billionaires has doubled in the last decade despite their combined wealth having declined in 2018.
  • From 2011 to 2017, average wages in G7 countries grew 3%, while dividends to wealthy shareholders increased by 31%.
  • Globally, 42% of working-age women are outside the paid labour force, compared with 6% of men, due to unpaid care responsibilities.
  • India’s richest 1% hold more than four-times the wealth held by the bottom 70% of the country’s population and  total wealth of 63 Indian billionaires is higher than the total Union Budget of India for the fiscal year 2018-19(Rs 24,42,200 crore.)
  • Concerns:-Economic inequality is out of control,wealth and power into the hands of a rich few and exploiting the labour of women and girls, and systematically violating their rights.
National Startup Advisory Council
National Startup Advisory Council
  • The Central Government has notified the structure of the National Startup Advisory Council being set up to advise the government on measures needed to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and startups in the country.
  • The Council will be chaired by Minster for Commerce & Industry.
  • Aims to drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities.
  • It will consist of the non-official members, to be nominated by Central Government, from various categories like founders of successful startups, veterans  etc.
  • The term of the non-official members of the Startup Advisory Council will be for a period of two years.
  • The nominees of the concerned Ministries/Departments/Organisations, not below the rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of India, will be ex-officio members of the Council.
UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
  • An International Arbitration Tribunal has dismissed all claims brought against India in entirety.
  • The arbitration arose out of the cancellation of Letters of Intent for the issuance of telecom licences to provide 2G services in five telecommunications circles by reason of India’s essential security interests.
  • The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is a subsidiary body of the U.N. General Assembly(Established in 1966) .
  • It is responsible for helping to facilitate international trade and investment.
  • The Tribunal constituted in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1976 is seated at the Hague, Netherlands, and proceedings are administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
  • Annual sessions held alternately in New York City and Vienna( headquartered)
Sub Categorization of other Backward Classes(OBC)
  • The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) proposed the sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) back in 2015.
  • In October 2017, President Ram Nath Kovind  appointed a commission(Article 340) to examine the issue of sub-categorisation of OBCs, chaired by retired Justice G. Rohini.
  • Aim to ensure social justice in an efficient manner by prioritising the Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs).
  •  The Union government is now seeking to ensure a more equitable distribution of reservation benefits by further differentiating caste groups coming under backward classes on the basis of their levels of social and economic backwardness.
EAO (East Asian Observatory)
EAO (East Asian Observatory)
  • India is discussing to be a part of the East Asian Observatories Consortium.
  • Formed  by EACOA (East Asian Core Observatories Association) for the purpose of pursuing joint projects in astronomy within the East Asian region.
  • The intention of EAO is to build and operate facilities, which will enhance and leverage existing and planned regional facilities.
  • The EAO is chartered as a non-profit Hawaii corporation;raise funding and to build an observatory staff, separate from that of the EACOA institutions.
  • It consists of China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea as full members and Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia as ‘observers’.
Democracy Index 2019
  • Democracy Index 2019 has been released by annually by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
  • It provides a snapshot of the state of world democracy for 165 independent states and two territories.
  • Parameters of index:-Electoral process and pluralism,Civil liberties,Functioning of government ,Political participation and Political culture.
  • Based on their scores,each country is then itself classified as one of four types of regime: full democracy; flawed democracy; hybrid regime; and authoritarian regime.
  • India is “flawed democracy” category and Bangladesh, USA are also same line.
  • China (2.26) and North Korea (bottom-ranked with 1.08) are categorised as “authoritarian regimes”.
  • Norway (top-ranked with 9.87) is counted as a “full democracy” and Other “full democracies” include Germany, the United Kingdom and France.
  • Its score, down from from 7.23 in 2018 to 6.90 in 2019, is its lowest ever since the Democracy Index was begun in 2006.
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
  • State-owned Khadi Village Industries Corporation is eyeing international trademark for 'khadi' under the Paris Convention for protection of industrial property.
  • Aim to To prevent any product from masquerading as ‘khadi’ nationally or globally.
  • presently protected through the Regulations issued in 2013 by the ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises, empower KVIC to grant ‘Khadi Mark’ registration and take royalties from any producer using the Khadi mark.
  • It is a multilateral treaty dealing with the protection of industrial property in the widest sense and the Convention has 177 contracting member countries.
  • Administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
National Data and Analytics Platform (NDAP)
  • NITI Aayog released its vision for the National Data and Analytics Platform (NDAP).
  • The platform aims to democratize access to publicly available government data.
  • It will host the latest datasets from various government websites, present them coherently, and provide tools for analytics and visualization.
  • NDAP will follow a user-centric approach and will enable data access in a simple and intuitive portal tailored to the needs of a variety of stakeholders.
ICJ ruling on Rohingya crisis
  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ) has given its verdict on the Rohingya crisis which is binding on Myanmar, and cannot be appealed.
  • the case reached ICJ by he Republic of the Gambia and supported by  he 57-member Organisation for Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Myanmar was represented by Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi.
  • Ruling says:-government of Myanmar should immediately take measures to prevent atrocities against members of the minority Rohingya Muslim community; ensure military or any irregular armed units within its control, do not commit any of the acts described above, or conspire to commit, direct, attempt to commit, or be complicit in genocide.
  • It is done  in accordance with its obligations under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • Myanmar shall take “effective measures to prevent the destruction and ensure the preservation of evidence related to allegations of acts” of genocide.
NavIC

NavIC
  • It is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland.
  • It is a regional system and so its constellation will consist of seven satellites-Three of these will be geostationary and  four will be geosynchronous.
  • IRNSS would provide two types of services, namely Standard Positioning Services available to all users and Restricted Services provided to authorised users.
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