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Sunday, January 19, 2020

Prelims booster(Micro notes), current affairs with static portions - weekly Compilation( 13 January-19 January)

SC verdict on internet shutdowns
  • The Court said that all restrictive orders under Section 144 of CrPC and suspension of internet services in Jammu and Kashmir have to be reviewed by the administration within a week.
  • The verdict has laid down a framework of how the Internet can be suspended, and what rights and legal recourses a citizen has when it is suspended.
  • Right to internet is a fundamental right (subject to reasonable restrictions) included in the freedom of expression under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.
  • Restrictions on fundamental rights could not be in exercise of arbitrary powers. These freedoms could only be restricted as a last resort.
  • Any order passed to restrict or suspend judicial scrutiny will be subject to judicial scrutiny.
Private property is a human right
  • The Supreme Court has recently held that a citizen’s right to own private property is a human right and the state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law.
  • ‘Right to private property was previously a fundamental right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution but property ceased to be a fundamental right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978.
  • Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property.
  • The right to property is now considered to be not only a constitutional or statutory right, but also a human right.
ARTEMIS ( Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) Mission
  • NASA announces graduating class of 11 astronauts( Indian American- Raja Chari,one of them)for upcoming space missions including the Artemis Mission.
  • The main objective is to measure what happens when the Sun’s radiation hits our rocky moon, where there is no magnetic field to protect it.
  • For the Artemis program, NASA’s new rocket called the Space Launch System (SLS) will send astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft a quarter of a million miles away from Earth to the lunar orbit.
Bojjannakonda
Bojjannakonda
  • Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh
  • Bojjannakonda and Lingalametta are twin Buddhist monasteries dating back to the 3rd century BC. 
  • The site is famous for many votive stupas, rock-cut caves, brick-built edifices, early historic pottery, and Satavahana coins 
  • These sites have seen three forms of Buddhism — Theravada period(Lord Buddha was considered a teacher),Mahayana(Buddhism was more devotional) and Vajrayana(Buddhist tradition was more practised as Tantra and in esoteric).
H9N2 Virus
  • Indian scientists have detected the country’s first case of infection with a rare variant of the virus- H9N2- that causes avian influenza, or bird flu.
  • H9N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus, which causes human influenza as well as bird flu.
  • H9N2 viruses are found worldwide in wild birds and are endemic in poultry in many areas.
  • H9N2 viruses could potentially play a major role in the emergence of the next influenza pandemic.
Integrated Road Accident Database (IRAD)
  • Developed by the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IIT-M).
  • It will be implemented by the National Informatics Centre
  • The IRAD mobile application will enable police personnel to enter details about a road accident, along with photos and videos, following which a unique ID will be created for the incident.
  • The system will be first piloted in the six States with highest fatalities from road crashes — Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The project costs ₹258 crore and is being supported by the World Bank.
Retail inflation
  • Retail inflation ascended to a five and a half year high of 7.35% .
  • Released by the National Statistical Office .
  • the The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is one of the most frequently used statistics for identifying periods of inflation or deflation.
  • CPI is a measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as transportation, food and medical care. It is calculated by taking price changes for each item in the predetermined basket of goods and averaging them.

  • Hormuz peace initiative
    Hormuz peace initiative
    • The meeting of Hormuz Peace Initiative was recently held in Iran.
    • It aims to stabilise the Strait of Hormuz, the gateway for a significant amount of global oil supplies.
    • Two-thirds of the oil and half the liquefied natural gas India imports come through the strait between Iran and Oman.
    5th Raisina Dialogue
    • Held in New Delhi.
    • This is an annual geo-political event, organised by the Ministry of External Affairs and Observer Research Foundation (ORF).
    • It is designed to explore prospects and opportunities for Asian integration as well as Asia’s integration with the larger world and India’s vital role in the Indian Ocean Region and how India along with its partners can build a stable regional and world order.
    • More than 700 international participants, including 80 from African countries, are attending the meet.
    Classical language
    •  Recently concluded 93rd edition of the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, a resolution was passed demanding the declaration of Marathi as a ‘Classical’ language
    • Classical languages are those which are ancient, of an independent nature and not a derivative of any other tradition.
    • These are High antiquity of its early texts/recorded(original and not borrowed from another speech community) history over a period of 1500-2000 years.
    • Language are :-1)Tamil (declared in 2004) 2)Sanskrit (2005) 3)Kannada (2008) 4) Telugu (2008) 5)Malayalam (2013) 6) Odia (2014).
    Juice jacking
    • SBI has publicly issued a warning of ‘Juice Jacking’ through its twitter handle.
    • It is an attack carried out by hackers through a USB charging cable.
    • Threats:-Installing malware, cleaning user data, asking ransom in exchange for access to personal data on the phone, personal and financial account hijacking
    Bharati Script
    Bharati Script
    • It is an alternative script for the languages of India developed by a team at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Madras lead by Dr. Srinivasa Chakravarthy.
    • The scripts that have been integrated include Devnagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil.
    • Bharati has, in general, 17 vowels and 22 consonants.
    Blue flag programme
    • Centre eases CRZ rules to help States construct infrastructure and enable them to receive ‘Blue Flag’ certification.
    • The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas cleanliness - portable toilet blocks, grey water treatment plants, a solar power plant, seating facilities, CCTV surveillance etc.
    • It is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education).
    • It started in France in 1985
    • Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and southeastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.
    India’s fiscal deficit
    • Former Economic Affairs Secretary S C Garg has stated that the true fiscal deficit for 2018-19 is 4.7%.
    • Contrary to these views, the Indian government says, the fiscal deficit just 3.4 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018-19. 
    • For long, it has been suspected that the official figures hide the true fiscal deficit.
    • It happens because of some  government’s expenditure was funded by the so-called “off-budget” items-As a result,extra expenditure did not figure in the official calculations.
    • fiscal deficit=the difference between the Revenue Receipts plus Non-debt Capital Receipts (NDCR) and the total expenditure, reflected the total borrowing requirements of Government
    HSN Code
    HSN Code
    • India not to allow imports without HSN code.
    • It is a six-digit identification code developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
    • This system has been introduced for the systematic classification of goods all over the world,Called the “universal economic language” for goods.
    • HSN classification is widely used for taxation purposes by helping to identify the rate of tax applicable to a specific product in a country that is under review.
    Saksham
    • It is a people centric fuel conservation mega campaign of Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA)- a registered society(a non-profit organization) established in 1978 under the aegis of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India.
    • Saksham actively involves the Oil & Gas PSUs along with other stakeholders like State Governments
    • aims:-create focused attention on fuel conservation through people centric activities and sensitize the masses about the conservation and efficient use of petroleum products leading to better health and environment
    Women, Business and the Law 2020
    • Women, Business and the Law (WBL) is a World Bank Group project collecting unique data on the laws and regulations that restrict women’s economic opportunities.
    • It is composed by eight indicators structured around women’s interactions with the law.
    • The indicators are:-Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension.
    • India is placed 117th among 190 countries.
    National Investigative Agency(NIA) Act
    • Chhattisgarh government has moved he Supreme Court against the National Investigation Act, 2008 stating it is violative of the Constitution.
    • The law governs the function of India's primer counter-terror agency passed in the wake of 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks.
    • It makes the National Investigation Agency(NIA) the only truly federal agency in the country, along the lines of the FBI in the United States, more powerful than the CBI.
    • It gives the power to the NIA to take suo-motu It gives the NIA powers to take suo motu cognisance of terror activities in any part of India and register a case, to enter any state without permission from the state government and arrest and investigate and arrest people. 
    • In its petition, the Chhattisgarh government said the Act “ultra vires the Constitution”as the 2008 Act allows the Centre to create an agency for investigation, which is a function of the state police. ‘Police’ is an entry in the State List of the Constitution’s 7th Schedule.
    GSAT-30
    • The first mission of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 2020.
    • India’s latest telecommunication satellite GSAT-30,launch took place from the Spaceport in French Guiana.
    • GSAT-30 is configured on ISRO’s enhanced I-3K Bus structure to provide communication services from Geostationary orbit.
    Open Acreage Licensing Policy(OALP)
    • A critical part of the Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy.
    • Provides uniform licences for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbons, enabling contractors to explore conventional as well as unconventional oil and gas resources.
    • Fields are offered under a revenue-sharing model and throw up marketing and pricing freedom for crude oil and natural gas produced.
    • Under the OALP, once an explorer selects areas after evaluating the National Data Repository (NDR) and submits the EoI, it is to be put up for competitive bidding and the entity offering the maximum share of oil and gas to the government is awarded the block.
    Eco-Sensitive Zone (ESZ)
    Eco-Sensitive Zone (ESZ)
    • Developmental and commercial activities have been stopped within 10-km radius of Bannerghatta National Park(located near Bangalore in Karnataka) area, which is part of the eco-sensitive zone.
    • Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
    • Activities conducted in eco-sensitive zones are regulated under the Environment (Protection Act) of 1986 and no polluting industry or mine is allowed to come up in such areas.

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