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Thursday, December 12, 2019

Prelims booster(Micro notes), current affairs with static portions - 9 December,2019

Data Protection Bill
  • The Bill has three key aspects that were not previously included in a draft version, prepared by a committee headed by retired Justice B N Srikrishna.
  • The bill constitutes 3 personal information types:
  1. Sensitive data :-constitutes or is related to passwords, financial data, health data, official identifier, sexual orientation, religious or caste data, biometric data and genetic data. (It may be processed outside India with the explicit consent of the user.)
  2. Critical data:- will be characterised by the government every once in a while, and must be stored and handled only in India.
  3. General data:- Any data that is non-critical and non-sensitive is categorised as general data with no limitation on where it is stored or managed.
  • Large collection of information about individuals and their online habits has become an important source of profits. It is also a potential avenue for invasion of privacy because it can reveal extremely personal aspects
  • Data principal: As per the bill, it is the individual whose data is being stored and processed.
  • Exemptions: The government is qualified to order any data fiduciary to acquire personal and non-personal data for the sake of research and for national security and criminal investigations.
  • An independent regulator Data Protection Agency (DPA) will oversee assessments and audits and definition making.
  • Each company will have a Data Protection Officer (DPO) who will liaison with the DPA for auditing, grievance redressal, recording maintenance and more.
  • It gives the right to data portability, and the ability to access,transfer one’s own data and right to be forgotten.
Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG) 
Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG)

  • IUCN 10th Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG) Meeting: held recently at Kota Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia.
  • It is a global network of specialists (both scientists and non-scientists) concerned with the study, monitoring, management, and conservation of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus).
  • Aim: To promote the long-term conservation of Asia’s elephants and, where possible, the recovery of their populations to viable levels.
  • It shall provide the best available scientifically grounded evidence to the abundance, distribution, and demographic status of Asian elephant populations in all 13 range states.
Creamy layer principle in SC, ST quota for promotion
  • Creamy layer’ : a layer which isolate “some members of a backward class who are highly advanced socially as well as economically and educationally.
  • In its landmark 1992 decision in Indra Sawhney vs Union of India, the Supreme Court had held that reservations under Article 16(4) could only be provided at the time of entry into government service but not in matters of promotion
  • Central government has asked the Supreme Court of India to refer to a seven-judge Bench the question whether the creamy layer concept should apply (or not) to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes while giving them reservation in promotions.
Adaptation fund
  • Established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • It finances projects and programmes that help vulnerable communities in developing countries adapt to climate change.
  • Initiatives are based on country needs, views and priorities.
  • The World Bank serves as trustee of the Adaptation Fund on an interim basis.
  • The Adaptation Fund, despite its limited size, is one of the few consistent avenues for finance sourced from developed countries, over which developing countries have significant control.
Head on Generation (HOG) technology
  • The system runs the train’s ‘hotel load’ (the load of air conditioning, lights, fans, and pantry, etc.) by drawing electricity from the overhead electric lines through the pantograph
  • In the End on Generation (EOG) system, the ‘hotel load’ is provided with electricity from two large diesel generator sets. [The generator cars are attached to either end of the train, giving the system its name.]
  • HOG-fitted trains do not require power from diesel generators and need only one emergency generator car attached,instead of two regular generator cars.
  • HOG system is free of air and noise pollution: It would bring down yearly CO2 and NOx emissions
Paika Rebellion
  • President Ram Nath Kovind to lay the foundation of a memorial dedicated to the 1817 Paika Rebellion
  •  In 1817, a valiant uprising of soldiers led by Buxi Jagabandhu (Bidyadhar Mohapatra) took place in Khurda of Odisha, is known as Paika rebellion.
  • Their resistance is sometimes seen as the first expression of resistance against colonial rule — and therefore considered to be “nationalist” in nature
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