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Monday, November 18, 2019

Prelims booster(Micro notes), current affairs with static portions -17 November,2019

Doctrine of Essentiality
  • Sabrimala review petitions was referred to the larger beach of seven judges. 
  • The debate are not only to allowing women of menstruating age into the Sabarimala Ayyappa temple but also on the courts role in interfering in religious matters.
  • The doctrine of “essentiality” was invented by a seven-judge Bench of the Supreme Court in the ‘Shirur Mutt’ case in 1954.
  •  doctrine of “essentiality:“religion” will cover all rituals and practices “integral” to a religion.
  • Providing constitutional protection only to those elements of religion which the court considers “essential” (as determined by Court).
Atal Tinkering Lab Marathon
  • It is being organised by the Atal Tinkering Labs of Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and the NITI Aayog in an effort to identify India’s best student innovators.
  • It is a six-month-long nationwide challenge across six different thematic areas, namely, clean energy, water resources, waste management, healthcare, smart mobility and agriculture-tech.
  • This is open to all students under the age of 18 years.
  • The objective of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity and imagination in young minds; and inculcate skills such as design mindset, computational thinking, adaptive learning, physical computing etc.
 Geochemical Baseline Atlas
  • CSIR- National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad released India’s first Geochemical Baseline Atlas.
  • The 44 maps of oxides and trace elements over the entire nation aim to document the concentration and distribution of the chemical elements in the soils of India.
  • It will help in understanding how soil pollution is contributing to groundwater contamination.
Tobacco Board of India
  • Tobacco Board of India has been awarded the Golden Leaf Award in the Most Impressive Public Service Initiative category for the year 2019
  • Tobacco Board is a statutory body established underTobacco Board Act of 1975.
  • It's  headquartered in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.
  • The board functions under the overall guidance of Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
  • The main functions of the Board include regulating the production and curing of Virginia tobacco in India, improving the yields and quality of tobacco, facilitating sale of tobacco through e-auctions, undertaking various grower welfare measures and export promotion of tobacco.
  • India stands 3rd in production of tobacco and in exports. Brazil and USA are ahead of India.
Contempt of Court
  • The Supreme Court has held former Ranbaxy promoters Malvinder and Shivinder Singh guilty of contempt for violating its order that had asked them not to divest their shares in Fortis Healthcare Limited.
  • In India, the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, divides contempt into civil contempt and criminal contempt.
  • ‘Civil contempt’ is a ‘wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a Court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to the court’.
  • Criminal contempt is generally regarded as a disobedient or open disrespect for the court.
  • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, very clearly states that fair criticism of any case which has been heard and decided is not contempt.
National Mission ‘NISHTHA’
  • launched in J&K
  • NISHTHA- National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA)
  • It is a Mission aimed at improving learning outcomes at Elementary level through integrated Teacher Trainings.
  • This Mission aims to build the capacities of 42 lakh participants covering all teachers and Heads of Schools at elementary level in all Government Schools across the country, faculty members of SIEs/SCERTs, DIETs etc
Wholesale and retail inflation
  • Recent data shows that the two rates are diverging – The WPI inflation for October has touched a 40-month low (0.16%). But retail inflation(CPI) in the country for the same month has touched a 16-month high.
  • Wholesale Price Index [WPI]
  1. It is the most widely used inflation indicator in India.
  2. Published by the Office of Economic Adviser, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  3. All transactions at the first point of bulk sale in the domestic market are included.
  4. Major criticism for this index is that the general public does not buy products at wholesale price.
  5. The base year of All-India WPI has been revised from 2004-05 to 2011-12 in 2017.
  • Consumer Price Index[CPI]
  1. It measures price changes from the perspective of a retail buyer.
  2. It measures changes over time in the level of retail prices of selected goods and services on which consumers of a defined group spend their incomes.
  3. Base Year for CPI is 2012.
  4. Four types of CPI are as follows:CPI for Industrial Workers (IW).,CPI for Agricultural Labourer (AL).,CPI for Rural Labourer (RL) and CPI (Rural/Urban/Combined).
  5. first three are compiled by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour and Employment. Fourth is compiled by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

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