Simple way for IAS preparation

Monday, October 14, 2019

Prelims booster compilation September, 2019

Prelims booster compilation September, 2019

Fit India Movement 
  • Envisioned by the Prime Minister, the nation-wide Fit India Movement aims to motivate every Indian to incorporate simple, easy ways of staying fit in their everyday life.
  • National Sports Day: It is celebrated on 29 August, on the birth anniversary of hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP)
  • It is a World Bank aided, multi-state livelihood project under the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), launched in 2012
  • Aim to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most disadvantaged, in four North Eastern States.
  • The project has focussed on five development strategies, namely, social empowerment, economic empowerment, partnership development, project management and livelihood & value chain developments.
Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
  • In 2006, adhoc CAMPA was established for the management of Compensatory afforestation fund.
  • These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest and (iii) other project specific payments. 
  • The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
  • According to the Act’s provision, a company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation.
  • For afforestation, the company should pay to plant new trees in the alternative land provided to the state. 
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Under UNCLOS, which India ratified in 1995, the sea and resources in the water and the seabed are classified into three zones — the internal waters (IW), the territorial sea (TS) and the exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
  • The IW is on the landward side of the baseline — it includes gulfs and small bays. Coastal states treat IW like land.
  • The TS extends outwards to 12 nautical miles from the baseline — coastal nations enjoy sovereignty over airspace, sea, seabed and subsoil and all living and non-living resources therein.
  • The EEZ extends outwards to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. Coastal nations have sovereign rights for exploration, exploiting, conserving and managing all the natural resources therein.

Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)

  • PM Modi will launch an International CDRI during the UN Climate Action Summit in New York.
  • The Coalition’s secretariat will be set up in New Delhi.
  • It creates a mechanism to assist countries for upgrading their capacities and practices with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
  • It will bring together technical expertise from a multitude of stakeholders

National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)


  • National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM), Conferred The Prestigious SKOCH Governance Gold Award.
  • Ministry/Department : Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
  • It is Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  • Objective is to uplift urban poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development.

Ballistic missile Ghaznavi

  • It is Pakistan’s surface-to-surface ballistic missile.
  • It is capable of delivering multiple types of warheads up to 290 kms
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Firoz Shah Tughlaq:
  • Delhi’s Feroz Shah Kotla stadium is set to be renamed Arun Jaitley Stadium 
  • Born in 1309 and ascended the throne of Delhi after the demise of his cousin Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
  • He was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty that ruled over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD. Tughlaq was in power from 1351 to 1388 AD.
  • Contribution
  1. He established the Diwan-i-Khairat — office for charity.
  2. He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan — department of slave
  3. He established Sarais (rest house) for the benefits of merchants and other travellers etc.

‘Build for Digital India’ programme
  • Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and Google have signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme.
  • The programme will give engineering students a platform to develop market-ready, technology-based solutions that address key social problems.
  • It will provide great exposure to students in dealing with real world problems and develop deeper understanding of how newer technologies can be used to solve them
Samudrayaan’ project
  • It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals.
  • It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies.
  • The project has been undertaken by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). 
  • If the ‘Samudrayaan’ project is successful, India will join the league of developed nations in the exploration of minerals from oceans.
  • India could be the first developing country to undertake such a project
Interpol Red Notice(RN)
interpol notices
interpol notices

  • Interpol describes an RN as “a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action”.
  • RNs contain information that helps identify wanted persons, such as their names, dates of birth, nationality, and physical attributes such as the colour of their hair and eyes, as well as pictures and biometric data such as fingerprints, if they are available
  • An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.

Key notes about Interpol:

  • Interpol is global police co-operation agency and a non-governmental organization (NGO). 
  • It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923. 
  • Its headquartered is located at Lyon, France. 
  • It is the world’s largest international police organization, with 194 member countries (including India) and second-largest international organization after United Nations in terms of international representation. 
  • Its work focuses on public safety and battling terrorism, crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes, environmental crime etc. 
Arctic Council:
  •  Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental body set up in 1996 by the Ottawa declaration to promote cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States together with the indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants. 
  • Council has the eight circumpolar countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark (Greenland and Faroe Islands), Canada, US and Russia) as member states
  • Observer status is open to Non-governmental organizations, Non-littoral states as well as to Intergovernmental and Inter-Parliamentary organizations.
  • India has an observer status in the council.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • Context: The 14th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD COP 14) begins in New Delhi.
  • India took over the Presidency of the COP from China
  • It is established in 1994, the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
  • the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
Project REPLAN (REducing PLastic in Nature):

  • Launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). 
  • It aims to make carry bags by mixing processed and treated plastic waste with cotton fibre rags in the ratio 20:80. 
  • The made paper is found to have good strength and durability. 
Country’s longest electrified rail tunnel

  • India’s longest electrified rail tunnel was recently inaugurated in Andhra Pradesh.
North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited (NERAMAC)

  • The NERAMAC is a pioneer marketing organization in the field of Agri-Horti sector,involved in supporting farmers right from the fields and up to the markets to the end consumers through registered FPO/FPCs.
  • It was incorporated in the year 1982 as a Government of India Enterprise and operating under the administrative control of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

  • Founded in 2002, the Global Fund is a partnership between governments, civil society, the private sector and people affected by the diseases.
  • The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization.
  • It aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals
  • The organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland

Mussels
  • Mussels are a small, edible sea animal that has a dark shell with two parts that close tightly together
  • Scientists are deploying mussels across the oceans to absorb microplastics and other pollutants in the fight against water pollution.
  • Mussels have long been used as “bio-indicators” of the health of the seas, lakes and rivers they inhabit.
One nation-one ration card

  • It will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
  • This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption
ANDREX Project

  • The project seeks to assess the role of the Weddell gyre in driving the southern closure of the meridional overturning circulation, in ventilating the deep global ocean, and in sequestering carbon and nutrients in the global ocean abyss.
  • Scientists have discovered that, contrary to existing assumptions, biological processes far out at sea are the most important factors determining how the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide.
  • This enhances the understanding of the link between the Southern Ocean — next to Antarctica — and the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels

Secondary Market For Corporate Loans

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) constituted Panel, headed by T.N. Manoharan, has given some suggestions for developing the secondary market for corporate loans in the country.
    Secondary Market

Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment
  • It is a joint research mission between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) teams
  • It aims to study the viability of diverting an asteroid by crashing a spacecraft into its surface.
  • The project aims to deflect the orbit of one of the two Didymos asteroids between Earth and Mars, with an observer craft gauging the effect of the impact more effectively than ground-based observers could manage
ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX)
The first ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX) between regional bloc- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and United States is being held at the Sattahip Naval Base in Thailand.

Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019
•As part of the ongoing Indo-US defence cooperation, a joint military training, Exercise Yudh Abhyas – conducted at Joint Base Lewis Mc Chord, Washington, USA.


Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA)
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) declared four individuals – Masood Azhar, Hafiz Saeed, Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi and Dawood Ibrahim – as terrorists under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
  • UAPA was amended in 2004,2008,2012 and 2019. 
key provisions of amended act
  • Empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorist,Previously only organization
  • Empowers the National Investigation Agency (NIA) to seize properties,previously required permission from the Director General of Police.
  • Allows NIA officers, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate,previously only DySP or ACP 
Concern
Opposition parties have raised concern over the 2019 amendment act, could also be misused against political opponents-civil society activists who spoke against the government may be branded as “terrorists.”
Apache helicopters
  • Indian Air Force (IAF) formally inducted 8 US-made Apache AH-64E helicopters at Pathankot Air Force station.
  • In 2015, IAF had signed a multi-billion dollar contract with US government and Boeing Ltd for 22 Apache helicopters. 
  • Apache is one of world’s most advanced multi-role combat helicopters-Capability(all weather capable,Electronic Warfare) to shoot fire and forget anti-tank guided missiles, air to air missiles, rockets and other ammunitions
Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs).
  • Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has entered into 26 Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs) in the financial year (April to August, 2019)
  • It is an agreement between a taxpayer and the tax authority determining the Transfer Pricing methodology for pricing the tax payer’s international transactions for future years.
Dadabhai Naoroji
  • September 4, 2019 was the 194th birth anniversary of Dadabhai Naoroji, known “Grand Old Man of India”
  • Naoroji was a professor of Gujarati, mathematics, and natural philosophy and also worked as a businessman.
  • In 1865 and 1866, Naoroji helped found the London Indian Society and the East India Association respectively
  • First Indian member of the British parliament in 1886
  • He was Congress president thrice, in 1886, 1893, and 1906.
  • Dadabhai Naoroji was among the key proponents of the ‘Drain Theory’,- in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’
External benchmark rates
  • The Reserve Bank of India has made it mandatory for all banks to link all new floating rate loans( interest varies with market conditions)(i.e. personal/retail loans, loans to MSMEs) to an external benchmark with effect from 1st October 2019.
  • Banks can choose from one of the four external benchmarks — repo rate, three-month treasury bill yield, six-month treasury bill yield or any other benchmark interest rate published by Financial Benchmarks India Private Ltd(recognised by the Reserve bank of India as an independent Benchmark administrator)
  • At present, interest rates on loans are linked to a bank’s marginal cost of fund-based interest rate, known as the Marginal Cost of Lending Rate (MCLR).
Nuakhai
Nuakhai

  • Harvesting festival of Odisha
  • It is also called Nuakhai Parab or Nuakahi Bhetghat.
Measles:
 It is a highly contagious viral disease. Spread: Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons.

Rubella
Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash

Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected
  • Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become a long-term infection.
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body, and causes chronic, or lifelong, infection.
  • There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Eat Right India Movement
  • It is a crucial preventive healthcare measure to trigger social and behavioural change
  • Due to increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases, widespread deficiencies of vitamins and minerals and rampant food-borne illnesses
  • It was launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
  • Movement is aligned with the government’s flagship public health programmes such as POSHAN Abhiyaan, Anemia Mukt Bharat, Ayushman Bharat Yojana and Swachh Bharat Mission.
Indo–Thai CORPAT•28th edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) between the Indian Navy (IN) and the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) is being held.

Institutes of Eminence Scheme

  • The institutes of eminence scheme under the Union human resource development (HRD) ministryaims to project Indian institutes to global recognition.
  • The selected institutes will enjoy complete academic and administrative autonomy
  • Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for the eminence tag.
  • The public institutions on the list will then be eligible for a government grant of ₹1,000 crore.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’

  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme was launched in January, 2015
  • aimed at promoting gender equality, improving the Child Sex Ratio and the significance of educating girls.
  • It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.
Indus Valley Civilizations
  • Study of DNA from skeletal remains excavated from the Harappan cemetery at Rakhigarhi has provided new insights into Indian history.
  • The study shows that hunter-gatherers of South Asia (who later formed Harappa Civilization) have an independent origin and are not descendent of Eurasian farmers.
  • The study done through DNA analysis of Rakhigarhi thus challenges Aryan Invasion theory
 National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) 

  • set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
  • works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
SLINEX 
  • SLINEX is a bi-lateral maritime fleet exercise between Navies of India and Sri Lanka
  • This has helped the two Navies in understanding each other’s procedures and contributes towards maritime security in the region.
Great Indian Bustards (GIB)
  • IUCN status: critically endangered.
  • Found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972 and in the CMS Convention and in Appendix I of CITES.
  • Protected areas:Desert National Park Sanctuary — Rajasthan, Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary – Andhra Pradesh and Karera Wildlife Sanctuary– Madhya Pradesh.
Global Liveability Index
  • Indian cities have not fared too well in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s (considered 140 cities for rankings)Global Livability Index for 2019.
  • Among the BRICS countries, Suzhou from China was ranked highest at 75, while India’s capital New Delhi was ranked lowest at 118th.
  • The ranking is based on a particular country’s scores in five broad categories, namely:
  1. Stability
  2. Healthcare
  3. Culture and Environment
  4. Education
  5. Infrastructure
C-Sat-Fi; XGSPON and CiSTB
  • Union Minister for Communications launched Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT’s) latest innovations, “C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi”, “XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network)” and “C-DOT’s Interoperable Set Top Box (CiSTB).
  • C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi): C-Sat-Fi is based on the optimal utilization of wireless and satellite communication to extend connectivity to the remote islands and difficult terrains
  • XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network): it is an effective solution to fulfil the rapidly increasing demands of high network speeds for applications like IPTV, HD Video Streaming, Online Gaming and other cloud based services. 
  • CiSTB (C-DOT’s Interoperable Set Top Box): Based on a portable smart card like a mobile SIM, this solution will revolutionize the experience of the Cable TV operators by offering them a high degree of choice, ease and convenience without having to replace the once installed STB. 
Mega Food Park
  • Minister of Food Processing Industries inaugurated Telangana’s first food park.
  • Under the food park scheme, the Centre provides financial assistance of up to ₹50 crore.(Know about scheme types)
  • The Mega Food Park Scheme is based on “Cluster” approach 
Motive behind mega food park
  • give boost to the food processing sector by adding value and reducing food wastage at each stage of the supply chain with particular focus on perishables.
  • provide direct and indirect employment opportunities
  • double the farmer incom by 2022
  • Export boosting 
  • connection between buyers and sellers 
  • 5 trillions economy 
  • poverty and hunger reduction
  • sustainable use of food 
Strengthening Local Democracy(for mains)
Democratic decentralisation has little in India. Over 25 years after the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments (they mandated the establishment of panchayats and municipalities as elected local governments) gave a range of powers and responsibilities and made them accountable to the people for their implementation, very little and actual progress has been made in this direction. 
Key issues:
  • volume of money set local governments for them is inadequate to meet their basic requirements. 
  • Much of the money given is inflexible( Local government is not free to use money ,several conditions and restrictions 
  • Local governments do not have the staff to perform even basic tasks. 
Way forward:
  • grama sabha should be organised through smaller discussions where everybody can really participate
  • Use of Short Message Services, or social media groups could be used for facilitating discussions between members of a grama sabha.
  • Local government organisational structures have to be strengthened.
  • Local governments must be enabled to hold State departments accountable and to provide quality, corruption free service to them, through service-level agreements.
  • Increase their taxation area,if they collect taxes, their voters will never forgive them for misusing their funds. 
Conclusion
  • India’s efforts in decentralisation represent one of the largest experiments in deepening democracy.
  • We have given ourselves a reasonably robust democratic structure for local governance over the last two decades and more.
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
  •  7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) ministerial meeting of 10 members of ASEAN countries and their six FTA (free trade agreement) partners is being held in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • RCEP is proposed between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
  • RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.
  • aims-boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff and non-tariff barriers,provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates and liberalise investment norms 
Why is India concerned,what India needs to do?(For mains)
India concerned
  • Greater access to Chinese goods may have impact on the Indian manufacturing sector- massive trade deficit with China-To reduce deficit India proposed differential market access strategy for China.
  •  RCEP countries demand for lowering customs duties on a number of products and greater access to the market than India has been willing to provide.
  • The current account deficit (CAD) touched 8 per cent of GDP, and the agreement in the present state of negotiations would mean forgoing a substantial part of the revenues.
  • The free movement of investments will benefit investors in the US, Singapore, Japan and China, but very few Indians will be taking advantage of this.
Why India should not miss RCEP?
  • make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exportsin each RCEP market, and the ensuing export-losses contributing to foreign exchange shortages
  • India would get greater market access in other countries not only in terms of goods, but in services and investments also.
Way ahead:
  • Bilateral talks between India and China are crucial for an early conclusion of RCEP negotiations as agreed by other members
  • Indian policymakers need to be mindful of domestic sectors’ concerns before agreeing on terms of deal.
  • Need to improve our competitiveness in the economy
UN Peacekeeping
  • Context: India calls for reforms in peacekeeping at UNSC debate.
  • United Nations Peacekeeping was created in 1948. Its first mission involved the establishment of the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
  • UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:
  1. Consent of the parties.
  2. Impartiality
  3. Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana
  • Aim: To improve the life of small and marginal farmers of the country.
  • voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years
  • monthly pension of Rs. 3000/– will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 years. The spouse is also eligible to get a separate pension of Rs.3000/- upon making separate contributions to the Fund.
6th schedule of the constitution
  • deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution Of India.
  • The total tribal population in Ladakh region is more than 97%. The region is inhabited by following Scheduled Tribes, namely:Balti,Beda,Bot, Boto,Brokpa, Drokpa, Dard, Shin,Changpa etc
  • Key provisions: governor is empowered to organise,divide the district into several autonomous regions. and re-organise the autonomous districts.
  • autonomous districts-Composition-4[nominated by the governor ]+ 26[elected on the basis of adult franchise.]
  • Term:-Elected members -5 years,nominated-pleasure of the governor.
  • Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council[can make laws on certain specified matters like land, forests, canal water, shifting cultivation, village administration, inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, social customs and so on. But all such laws require the assent of the governor.]
  • The acts of Parliament or the state legislature do not apply to autonomous districts and autonomous regions or apply with specified modifications and exceptions.
  • governor can appoint a commission to examine and report on any matter relating to the administration
    Government e Marketplace (GeM)
    • GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries, that has used technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.
    MPATGM missile:
    • Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile is an Indian third-generation fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile.
    • Developed by DRDO.
    • Incorporated with state-of-the-art Infrared Imaging Seeker along with advanced avionics.
    “Kartarpur Corridor” project
    • The corridor – often dubbed as the “Road to Peace” – will connect Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan’s Kartarpur with Dera Baba Nanak shrine in India’s Gurdaspur district.
    • The construction of the corridor will allow visa-free access to pilgrims from India. 
    • Pakistan has agreed in principle to allow visa-free, year-long travel to the Sikh shrine.
    • The gurdwara in Kartarpur stands on the bank of the Ravi, about 120 km northeast of Lahore.
    National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons
    • It is a pension scheme for the shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore
    • Beneficiary is required to have an Aadhaar card and a saving bank/ Jan-dhan Account passbook only.
    • He/ She should be within 18 to 40 years of age group.
    • It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme
    • The Central Government shall give 50 % share of the monthly contribution and remaining 50% contribution shall be made by the beneficiary
    • It has a provision for minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000/- monthly on attaining the age of 60 years.
    District mineral foundations(DMFs)
    • They are non-profit truststo work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.
    • Jurisdiction: Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
    • Chhattisgarh became the first state to amend DMF rules.(inclusion of 10 Gram Sabha members directly from mining-affected areas in the DMF Governing Council .In Scheduled Areas, at least 50 per cent of the Gram Sabha members must be from Scheduled Tribes (ST).)
    Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY):

    The programme is meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).

    National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) project
    • It is an ambitious counter terrorism programme.
    • It will utilise technologies like Big Data and analytics to study and analyse the huge amounts of data from various intelligence and enforcement agencies to help track suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
    Drought Toolbox
    • It's a kind of knowledge bank that may be used by vulnerable countries, such as India, to reduce drought risk and be better prepared and effectively respond to it.
    • At the ongoing 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), a Drought Toolbox has been launched
    Bioterrorism
    • A form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs). This is also referred to as germ warfare.
    • The threat of bioterrorism is increasing as a result of the rise of technical capabilities, the rapid expansion of the global biotechnology industry, and the growth of loosely sophisticated networks of transnational terrorist groups that have expressed interest in bioterrorism
    Jan Soochna Portal
    • The first-ever public information portal was launched in Rajasthan – named Jan Soochna Portal – to provide information about government authorities and departments suo motu to the public 
    • The portal would ensure compliance with Section 4(2) of the RTI Act mandating the public authorities to disclose information in the public domain, so that the people need not file applications under the law to obtain information
    Uniform Civil Code (UCC)
    • Article 44 of the Constitution says that there should be a Uniform Civil Code
    • It is a proposal to have a generic set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion
    Water on Exoplanet
    • Astronomers have for the first time discovered water in the atmosphere of exoplanet – K2-18b, along with Earth-like temperatures that could support life.
    • An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System
    • The K2-18b planet orbits the cool dwarf star K2-18(Leo constellation of the milkyway galaxy)
    • Scientists used archive data from 2016 and 2017 captured by the ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope
    Collegium of Supreme Court judges
    • The Collegium of judges does not figure in the Constitution.
    • It is the Supreme Court’s invention
    • Collegium is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges and recommends the transfer of Chief Justices and other judges.
    Bamboonomics
    • a movement to combat desertification and climate change which will involve the tribal community of India
    • movement will ensure that tribals can earn a livelihood without causing environmental harm.
    • launched at the COP 14 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
    Central Adverse List

    • The Centre has removed from the Central Adverse List names of few foreign nationals involved in anti-India activities
    • It is a list maintained by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • The list contains: Names of individuals who supported the Khalistan movement in 1980s and 90s but left India to take asylum in foreign countries,individuals who are suspected to have links with terrorist outfitsor have violated visa norms in their previous visit to India and persons who have indulged in criminal activities or have been accused of sexual crimes against children in their respective countries.
    International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer
    • World Ozone Day-September 16 ,Theme(2019): 32 Years and Healing.
    • Ozone layer: Absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light which is harmful to human life and other life forms.
    • It Absorbs about 97 to 99% of ultraviolet rays and maintain the ozone-oxygen cycle.
    • Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon tetrachloride, halons and methyl chloroform-are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).
    Samudra Laksamana:
    •The Indian Navy and Malaysian Navy had recently participated in the bilateral exercise ‘Samudra Laksamana

    Pulikali
    Pulikali

    • known as Tiger Dance
    • folk art of Kerala, performed on the fourth day of Onam festival.
    • Artists wear a tiger mask, paint their bodies like tigers and dance to the rhythm of traditional percussion instruments such as thakil, udukku and chenda
    Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

    • PMMVY has achieved a significant milestone by crossing one crore beneficiaries- Rs. 4,000 crores was distributed.
    • The scheme was launched in 2017 as Centrally SponsoredScheme and implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development
    • It is a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme under which cash benefits of Rs. 5,000 in three instalments  are provided to pregnant women in their bank account directly to meet enhanced nutritional needs and partially compensate for wage loss.
    PACEsetter Fund programme
    • It is INR 50 crore (USD 7.9 million) fund jointly capitalized by the Governments of the Republic of India and the United States of America.
    • Constituted by India and the USA in 2015.
    • It is a joint fund to provide early-stage grant funding to accelerate the commercialization of innovative off-grid clean energy products, systems, and business models.
    • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy awards grants to four projects in second round of PACEsetter Fund
    Lotus Tower
    • Sri Lanka unveils South Asia’s tallest tower (called Lotus Tower) in Colombo.
    • It is 350-metre-tall and in the shape of Lotus
    • It comprises a hotel, a TV tower, restaurants, a mall, a telecommunications museum, and auditorium.

    Recognition of Prior Learning – RPL
    • RPL is a key element under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
    • It Align the competencies of the unregulated sectors of the country with the National Skills Qualification Framework
    • Enhance the chances of employment of individuals and provide them with more options for higher education
    • Minister, Skill Development and Entrepreneurship distributes certificates to RPL trainees under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.

    #FridaysForFuture:
    • It is a movement that began in August 2018, after 15 years old Greta Thunberg sat in front of the Swedish parliament every school day for three weeks, to protest against the lack of action on the climate crisis

    Leather Sector Skill Council (LSSC):
    • It is a non-profit organisation dedicated to meeting the demand for skilled workforce in the leather industry in India.
    • It was set up in 2012 as one of the key sector skill councils approved by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).
    Shodh Shuddh:
    • It is a Plagiarism Detection Software (PDS) launched by the union Ministry of HRD.
    • Implemented by Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET), an Inter University Centre (IUC) of UGC.
    • It will significantly help to improve the quality of research outcomes by ensuring the originality of ideas and publication of the research scholars.

    West Bank
    • The West Bank is a landlocked territory, which is bordered by Jordan to the east and the Green Line separating it and Israel in the north, south and west.
    • The territory was occupied by Israel during the six-day war in 1967.
    • Under the Oslo Accords, which was signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in September 1993, the two sides agreed that West Bank and Gaza Strip would be treated as a single territorial unit.






    Sagittarius A
    • It is a supermassive black hole 26,000 light years away from Earth, near the Galactic Centre, or the centre of the Milky Way.

    Shondol
    • Shondol is famous dance, which used to be performed by artists for King of Ladakh on special occasions.
    • Shondol dance has created history by entering into the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest Ladakhi dance, which involved 408 women
    • During the festival, it was not only focused on Zero usage of Plastic but also sensitise the religious and community leaders on plastic waste management and recycling

    Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PM-JAY)
    • Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PM-JAY) has completed one year and has recorded 46.4 lakh hospital treatments worth ₹7,500 crore
    • The scheme gives annual healthcare benefits of up to ₹5 lakh for every entitled family.
    • The scheme has resulted in saving of over ₹12,000 crore to the beneficiary families.
    • PM-JAY aims to ensure improved healthcare delivery, through a combination of government hospitals and strategic purchasing of services from private hospitals, in health care deficit areas

    Social stock exchanges
    • In 2019-20 Union Budget, the Finance Minister had proposed a social stock exchange within the ambit of SEBI, for social enterprises and voluntary organisations working for social welfare to help them raise capital through debt, equity and mutual fund.
    • A social stock exchange, broadly, is understood as a platform that allows investors to buy shares in a social enterprise that has been vetted by the exchange.
    • In London, a similar type of platform acts more as a directory connecting social enterprises with potential investors.

    Dadasaheb Phalke  Award
    • The country’s highest film honour, the DadasahebPhalke award, will be presented this year to Amitabh Bachchan.
    • DadasahebPhalke (1870–1944), was an Indian film-maker who directed India’s first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra (1913). He is regarded as “the father of Indian cinema.”
    • It is given to people for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema”.
    • It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals (an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting).
    • The award was first presented in 1969. The first recipient of the award was actress Devika Rani, “the first lady of Indian cinema.” 
    SASTRA Ramanujan prize
    • The SASTRA Ramanujan prize for 2019 will be awarded to mathematician Adam Harper, Assistant Professor with the University of Warwick, England.
    • The prize was instituted in 2005 and is conferred annually on mathematicians from across the world who are less than 32 years of age, working in an area influenced by the genius Srinivasa Ramanujan.
    • This prize is awarded by SASTRA University on its campus near Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, on Ramanujan’s birth anniversary, December 22.

    Gandhi Solar Park
    • PMModi along with others world leaders inaugurated the Gandhi Solar Park at the UN headquarters on the occasion of Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary.
    • The 50 kWh roof-top solar park having 195 solar panels—each representing a member of the multilateral body – was built by India at a cost of US $1 million

    National Service Scheme (NSS)
    • It is a Central- Sector scheme.
    • Conducted by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
    • Launched in Gandhiji’s Centenary year in 1969.
    • Aim to develop healthy contacts between the students and teachers on the one hand and establishing a constructive linkage between the campus and the community on the other hand.

    Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT)
    • Formally established in July 2017 as a group of companies, dedicated to disrupting terrorist abuse of members’ digital platforms.
    • The original Forum was led by a rotating chair drawn from the founding four companies—Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube—and managed a program of knowledge-sharing, technical collaboration and shared research.
    Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM)
    • EAC-PM is an independent body constituted to give advice on economic and related issues to the Government of India, specifically to the Prime Minister
    • These could be either suo-motu or on reference from the Prime Minister or anyone else.
    • It also includes attending to any other task as may be desired by the Prime Minister from time to time.
    Impeachment
    • Impeachment is the levelling of charges against an elected official by a legislative body. If the charges are proved right, it leads to removal of official from the post.
    • President can be impeached for violation of the Constitution (Article 61)
    • The motion for impeaching President can be introduced in any House of Parliament.
    • After the investigation, the motion of impeachment must be passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by both Houses of the Parliament.
    Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)
    • NSG is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment, and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons
    • NSG controls most of the world’s nuclear trade
    • NSG formed in 1974 consists of 48 members which include the five nuclear weapon states US, UK, France, China, and Russia. 
    • It is an informal grouping, and its guidelines are not binding. Decisions, including on membership, are made by consensus.
    • While the US and other countries support India’s entry into NSG, China has opposed it saying India has not signed the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty.

    Varaha
    • It is an Indian Coast Guard Ship commissioned recently.
    • It will enhance the surveillance and patrolling capabilities of Indian Coast Guard and reinforce their role as ‘Sentinels of our Seas’.
    • It has been designed and built indigenously by Larsen & Toubro (L&T) at its Katupalli ship building yard in North Chennai.
    Sardar Patel National Unity Award
    • It is the Highest Civilian Award for contribution to Unity and Integrity of India.
    • The Award seeks to recognize notable and inspiring contributions to promote the cause of national unity and integrity and to reinforce the value of a strong and united India.
    • The award will be announced on the occasion of the National Unity Day, i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Patel on 31st October.
    • The Award would consist of a medal and a citation. No monetary grant or cash award would be attached to this Award.

    Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
    • India had revoked Article 370 in Jammu & Kashmir which provided the state with special status and bifurcated the state into two Union Territories in August 2019
    • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest inter-governmental organisation after the UN, with the membership of 57 states, covering four continents.
    India discusses Chabahar with Iran
    • PM Modi met Iranian President on the sidelines of UNGA meet and discussed about Chahbahar port of Iran, which India is helping to develop
    • Iran’s Chabahar port is a strategic project that would connect India, Afghanistan and Iran to Central Asia.
    • Iran is facing sanctions from USA after Washington pulled out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action [JCPOA-international deal to limit Iran’s nuclear program in return for lifting economic sanctions imposed on Iran by WestIt was signed by Iran and the P5+1 (China France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) on July 14, 2015.]impacting the progress on port project.
    Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban(PMAY-U)
    • Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA) in Mission mode.
    • It envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022
    • Beneficiaries are poor and people living under EWS(Economically weaker section) and LIG(Lower Income Group) categories in the country.
    • Benefit:-
      1. The government is providing an interest subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which can be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from start of loan date.
      2. The government will grant Rs 1 lakh to all the beneficiaries of the scheme. In addition, Rs 1.5 lakh will be given to all eligible urban poor who want to construct their houses in urban areas or plan to go for renovation in their existing houses.
      3. One can also avail loans under this scheme to build toilets in existing houses.
    • House is to be allotted in the name of adult female member or in joint name and all houses to have toilet facility, drinking water and power supply.
    Quad countries
    • The quadrilateral formation includes Japan, India, United States and Australia
    • All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.
    • Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific.

    National Population Register (NPR)
    • It is a Register of usual residents(a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months or more.) of the country.
    • It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003
    • It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR.

    Project NETRA
    • It is initiated by ISRO
    • an early warning system in space to detect debris and other hazards to Indian satellites.
    Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)
    • established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act 1985.
    • Chairman – Appointed by the Central Government.

    Galo community
    • The Galos are one of the 26 major communities of Arunachal Pradesh.
    • The Galos belong to the Tani group inhabiting Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, besides Tibet.
    • Mopinis the main festival in Galos which is celebrated for the prosperity of the villages
    • The Galos perform Popir dance
    Climate Vulnerability Map of India
    • A pan India climate vulnerability assessment map is being developed for preparing communities and people to meet the challenges arising out of climate change.
    • The map is being developed under a joint project of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
    • The atlas is expected to be ready by the middle of 2020.

    Saraswati Samman
    • The award is presented by the KK Birla Foundation.
    • It is given to an outstanding literary work in any Indian language mentioned in Schedule VIII of the Constitution and published in 10 years preceding the specified award year.
    • It is the highest recognition in the field of Indian literature in the country.
    Bathukamma
    • It is the state festival of Telangana
    •  ‘Bathukamma’ means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’.
    • The festival was traditionally celebrated by women across the state.
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