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Thursday, October 31, 2019

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings

Topics 

  • Regulating act 1773
  • Pitt's India Act 1784
  • Charter act of 1813
  • Charter act of 1833
  • Charter act of 1853
  • Government of India Act 1858
  • Indian Council act 1861
  • Indian Council act 1892
  • Indian Council act 1909
  • Government of India Act 1919
  • Government of India Act 1935
  • Indian Independence Act 1947

Indian constitution was developed through several acts.
Regulating act 1773

  • First step taken by the British government to control and regulate the East India company's affairs.
  • Recognise,First time the political and administrative function of East India Company and it laid the foundation of the central administration Designated ‘governor of Bengal’ as ‘Governor-General of Bengal’.
  • Warren Hastings was the first governor general of the Bengal.Created executive Council of 4 members to assist him.
  • Bombay and Madras Presidency where made the subordinate to the Bengal.
  • Supreme Court was established at Kolkata (1974)-One chief justice and 3 others Judges
  • prohibited servant of the company from engaging in any private trade.
  • Court of directors( governing body of the company)should report its revenue
Pitt's India Act 1784

  • `Distinguished between commercial and political functions of the company.
  • Court of Directors for Commercial functions and Board of Control for political affairs.
  • Establish a system of government. 
  • Reduced the strength of the Governor General’s council to three members.
  • The companies territories in India were called “the British possession in India” and placed the Indian affairs under the direct control of the British Government.
  • Governor’s executive councils were established in Madras and Bombay.

    Charter act of 1813
  • The Company’s monopoly over Indian trade ended except trade in Tea with China;
  • Trade with India open to all British subjects.
  • Grant permission to the missionaries to come to India and engage in religious proselytization.
Charter Act of 1833

  • Governor-General (of Bengal) became as the Governor-General of India,final steps to the centralisation of the British India.
  • First Governor General in India was Lord William Bentinck.
  • It deprived the legislative power of Bombay and Madras province and governor general of India was given exclusive legislative power.
  • The Act ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body and it became a purely administrative body.
  • Attempted to introduced open competition for selecting civil servants But failed because of opposition from the court of directors.
Charter act of 1853 
  • The legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s Council were separated.
  • It is introduced first time local representation.6 members in Central legislative council. 4 out of 6 members were appointed by the provisional governments of Madras, Bombay, Bengal and Agra.
  • Introduce the open competitive system for recruiting Civil Servant, Indian can also participate.It was based on Macaualy Committee(1854)
Government of India Act 1858
  • It is also known as act for good governance. 
  • The rule of Company was replaced by the rule of the British Crown.
  • Governor General of India was known as viceroy of India was the representative of the British Crown.
  • It ended the system of dual government by abolishing Board of Control and court of directors.creates a new office, Secretary of the state for Indian vested with complete authority and control over Indian Administration.
  • Establish a 15 member Council of India(Advisory body) to assist the Secretary of state for India.
  • This act also ended the doctrine of lapse.
  • First Secretary of State for India: Lord Stanley and first Viceroy of India: Lord Canning.
Indian Council act 1861
  • It introduced for the first time Indian representation in the institutions like Viceroy’s executive+legislative council (non-official). 3 Indians(Maharaja of Patiala Raja of Banaras and sir Dinkar Rao) entered Legislative council.
  • Legislative councils were established in Center and provinces.
  • Initiate process of decentralisation by restoring legislative power of Bombay and Madras Presidency.
  • Empower the viceroy to issue ordinance without concurrence of the legislative Council,during an emergency.
  • Life of such Ordinance all six month.
  • It accorded statutory recognition to the portfolio system.
India Council Act of 1892
  • Enlarged the size of the legislative councils(Increase the number of additional members{Non-official} in Central and provincial Legislative councils But maintain official majority in the official majority in them)
  • Increase the function of Legislative Council and give them power to discuss the budget and addressing questions to executive.
  • Introduced indirect elections (nomination).
Indian Councils Act of 1909
  • This Act is also known as the Morley- Minto Reforms(Lord Morley was the secretary of state India and Lord Minto was the viceroy of India).
  • Increase the size of Legislative Council both Central( 16 to 60) and the provinces( not uniform) Retained official majority in Central but allow non-official majority in provinces. 
  • Indians for the first time in Viceroy's executive council. (Satyendra Prasad Sinha, as the law member)Introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’.
  • It also provides Separate representation of the presidency Corporation,Chamber of Commerce Universities and jamindar.
Government of India Act of 1919
  • This Act is also known as the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.(Montagu was Secretary of state for India and Lord chelmsford was the viceroy of India).
  • The Central subjects were demarcated and separated from those of the Provincial subjects.
  • The scheme of dual governance, ‘Dyarchy’, was introduced in the Provincial subjects
  • The subjects are-Transfer subject(Administered by governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council)and reserved subject( administered by governor with Executive Council without being responsible to the Legislative Council)
  • The Act introduced, for the first time, bicameralism at center(Council of state and legislative assembly)
  • Direct election was started(Limited number of people on the basis of the property tax and education got franchise) and the majority of the members of both houses were directly elected.
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Saturday, October 26, 2019

Livestock census 2019-Relevant points summary

Livestock census 2019Image result for Livestock census 2019

The census was released by the department of animal husbandry and dairying.It show that the population of the livestock is increased by 4.6% .the census periodically conducted since 1019-20.
  • Decline of ingenious cattle population.
  • Population of the cow has increased by 18%
Livestock:-
various species of animals possessed by households, household enterprises or non-household enterprises and institutions are counted at site — both in rural and urban areas.
Importance of the livestock:- 
It is important for the economy,society and cultural point of view.it increase the income of the rural household and generate employment.supply of the food in rural and urban areas,food security,nutrition security.
Issue in the sector

  • Poor quality of breed
  • Shrinking the grazing land
  • Low productivity
  • Lack of scientific tools
  • Excessive number of unproductive animals
  • Late maturity of the breeds
  • Health of the cattle 
  • Unskilled labour
  • Lack of farmer industry connectivity
  • Low research and development 
  • High export duty

Way forward

  • National breeding policy
  • Encourage the common people to participate in the policy
  • Animal health infrastructure 
  • R&D
  • Private Investment 
  • Training

It helps to attain double farmer income by 2022 and Nutritional Security.


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Thursday, October 24, 2019

System of Government /Emergency Provisions-Previous years prelims questions analysis

In the context of India, which of the following principles is/are, implied institutionally in the
parliamentary government?(2013)
1. Members of the Cabinet are Members of the Parliament.
2. Ministers hold the office till they enjoy confidence in the Parliament.
3. Cabinet is headed by the Head of the State.
Select
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
Answer:-A
Consider the following statements : A Constitutional Government is one which -(1014)
1. Places effective restrictions on individual liberty in the interest of State Authority.
2. Places effective restrictions on the Authority of the State in the interest of individual liberty.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer:-B
There is a Parliamentary System of Government in India because the(2015)
(a) Lok Sabha is elected directly by the people
(b) Parliament can amend the Constitution
(c) Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved
(d) Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha
Answer:-D
The Parliament of India acquires the power to legislate on any item in the State List in the national interest if a resolution to that effect is passed by the(2016)
(a) Lok Sabha by a simple majority of its total membership
(b) Lok Sabha by a majority of not less than two-thirds of its total membership
(c) Rajya Sabha by a simple majority of its total membership
(d) Rajya Sabha by a majority of not less than two-thirds of its members present and voting
Answer:-D
Out of the following statements, choose the one that brings out the principle underlying the Cabinet form of Government:(2017)
(a) An arrangement for minimizing the criticism against the Government whose responsibilities are
complex and hard to carry out the satisfaction of all.
(b) A mechanism for speeding up the activities of the Government whose responsibilities are
increasing day by day.
(c) A mechanism of parliamentary democracy for ensuring collective responsibility of the
Government to the people.
(d) A device for strengthening the hands of the head of the Government whose hold over the people
is in a state of decline.
Answer:-C
Which one of the following is NOT a feature to Indian federalism?(2017)
(a) There is an independent judiciary in India.
(b) Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States.
(c) The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.
(d) It is the result of an agreement among the federating units.
Answer:-D
Democracy’s superior virtue lies in the fact that it calls into activity(2017)
(a) the intelligence and character of ordinary men and women.
(b) the methods for strengthening executive leadership.
(c) a superior individual with dynamism and vision.
(d) a band on dedicated party workers.
Answer:-A
The main advantage of the parliamentary form of governments is that(2017)
(a) the executive and legislature work independently.
(b) it provides continuity of policy and is more efficient.
(c) the executive remains responsible to the legislature.
(d) the head of the government cannot be changed without election
Answer:-C
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Salient Features -Previous years prelims questions analysis

Salient Features

 Which one of the following Schedules of the Constitution of India contains provisions regarding anti defection ?(2014)
(a) Second Schedule
(b) Fifth Schedule
(c) Eighth Schedule
(d) Tenth Schedule
Answer:-A

First Schedule
1. Names of the States and their territorial jurisdiction.
2. Names of the Union Territories and their extent.
Second Schedule
 Provisions relating to the emoluments, allowances, privileges and so on of:
1. The President of India
2. The Governors of States
3. The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha
4. The Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
5. The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly in the states
6. The Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council in the states
7. The Judges of the Supreme Court
8. The Judges of the High Courts
9. The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
Third Schedule
Forms of Oaths or Affirmations for:
1. The Union ministers
2. The candidates for election to the Parliament
3. The members of Parliament
4. The judges of the Supreme Court
5. The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
6. The state ministers
7. The candidates for election to the state legislature
8. The members of the state legislature
9. The judges of the High Courts
Fourth Schedule
Allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and the union territories.
Fifth Schedule
Provisions relating to the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled  tribes.
Sixth Schedule
Provisions relating to the administration of tribal areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule
Division of powers between the Union and the States in terms of List I (Union List), List II (State List) and List III (Concurrent List). Presently, the Union List contains 100 subjects (originally 97), the state list contains 61 subjects (originally 66) and the concurrent list contains 52 subjects (originally 47).
Eighth Schedule
Languages recognized by the Constitution. Originally, it had 14 languages but presently there are 22 languages. They are: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Mathili (Maithili), Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Sindhi was added by the 21st Amendment Act of 1967; Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added by the 71 st Amendment Act of 1992; and Bodo, Dongri, Maithili and Santhali were added by the 92nd Amendment Act of 2003.
Ninth Schedule
Acts and Regulations (originally 13 but presently 282) 19 of the state legislatures dealing with land reforms and abolition of the zamindari system and of the. Parliament dealing with other matters. This schedule was added by the 1st Amendment (1951) to protect the laws included in it from judicial scrutiny on the ground of violation of fundamental rights. However, in 2007, the Supreme Court ruled that the laws included in this schedule after April 24, 1973, are now open to judicial review.
Tenth Schedule
Provisions relating to disqualification of the members of Parliament and State Legislatures on the ground of defection. This schedule was added by the 52nd Amendment Act of 1985, also known as Anti-defection Law.
Eleventh Schedule
Specifies the powers, authority and responsibilities ofPanchayats. It has 29 matters. This schedule was added by the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992.
Twelfth Schedule
Specifies the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities. It has 18 matters. This schedule was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992.

Major Sources of Indian Constitution
Constitution of the United States
  • Preamble
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Federal structure of government
  • Electoral College
  • Independence of the judiciary and separation of powers among the three branches of the government
  • Judicial review
  • President as Supreme Commander of Armed Forces
  • Equal protection under law
British constitution
  • Parliamentary form of government
  • The idea of single citizenship
  • The idea of the Rule of law
  • Writs
  • Institution of Speaker and his role
  • Lawmaking procedure
  • Procedure established by Law
Canadian constitution
  • A quasi-federal form of government 
  • a federal system with a strong central government
  • Distribution of powers between the central government and state governments
  • Residual powers retained by the central government
 Irish constitution (Ireland)
  • Directive Principles of State Policy
  • Nomination of members to Rajya Sabha
  • Method of Election of President
French constitution
  • Republic and the ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity in the Preamble
Australian constitution
  • Freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between the states
  • Power of the national legislature to make laws for implementing treaties, even on matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction
  • Concurrent List
Constitution of Soviet Union (USSR)
  • Fundamental Duties under Article 51-A
  • A Constitutionally mandated Planning Commission to oversee the development of the economy
  • Constitution of South Africa
  • Procedure for amendment
  • Election of Rajya Sabha members
Constitution of Germany
  • Emergency powers to be enjoyed by the Union
  • Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency.
  • Constitution of Russia
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Idea of Social, Economic, and Political Justice in Preamble
  • Constitution of Japan
  • Procedure Established by Law

Government of India Act 1935

  • Federal Scheme
  • Emergency Provisions
  • Public Service Commissions
  • Office of Governor
  • Judiciary
  • Administrative Details
Important committees of the constituent assembly and their chairmen
  • Ad hoc Committee on the National flag -Rajendra Prasad
  • Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights-Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly-G.V. Mavalankar
  • Committee on Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas-Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Committee on the Rules of Procedure-Rajendra Prasad
  • Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution-Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
  • Provincial Constitution Committee-Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Drafting Committee-B.R. Ambedkar
  • Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas  Sub-Committee-A.V. Thakkar
  • Finance and Staff Committee-Rajendra Prasad
  • Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee-J.B. Kripalani
  • House Committee-B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya
  • Minorities Sub-Committee-H.C. Mukherjee
  • Order of Business Committee-K.M. Munshi
  • States Committee-Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Steering Committee-Rajendra Prasad
  • Union Constitution Committee-Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Union Powers Committee-Jawaharlal Nehru
Consider the following statements:(2018)
1. The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of
India.
2. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no
judgement can be made on it.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer:-A

Govt mulls putting SC/ST Act in Ninth Schedule of Constitution to insulate it from judicial scrutiny
read full articles:-Here


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Monday, October 21, 2019

Union and its Territory-Indian Constitution


Union and its Territory-Indian Constitution

Union and its Territory-Indian Constitution

  • Introduction
  • Details of the articles

Introduction
Part-I(Article 1 to 4) of the Indian constitution deals with the union and its territory . This part of the constitution contains the law in the establishment, renaming, merging or altering the borders of the states.

Details of the articles
Articles-1:-Name and territory of the Union
  • India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.(It specify two thing the name of the country and polity of the country).the reason behind two name of the country is the debate on the naming of the constitutional assembly. 
  • Though the country is described as a union but its constitution is federal in nature.
  • The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.
  •  The territory of India shall comprise –
             a) the territories of the States
             b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule
             c) such other territories as may be acquired.
  • Do not misunderstood on union of India and territory of India .Territory of India is wider than union of India .Union of India is only states which are shearing their power with centre.
Article-2:- Admission or establishment of new States
  • Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and condition as it thinks fit.It grands two powers to the parliament 1.Admission into union of India  new states.2.Power to establish new state.First refer admission of states which are already in existence,while the second the Establishment of state which were not in existence before .
  • Admission or establishment of new states which are not part of the union of india

Article-3:- Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
  • Parliament may by law –
  1. form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;
  2.  increase the area of any State;
  3. diminish the area of any State;
  4.  alter the boundaries of any State
  5.  alter the name of any State
  • A bill on above change can be introduced in parliament only with prior recommendation of the president.
  • President has to refer the same to the state legislature for expressing their view in a particular time.In case of union Territory view is not needed.
  • President is not bound to accept the view of the state legislature.

Articles -4:-Laws made under Articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the first and the Fourth schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.
  • This amendment is not under article 368 but indian territory can be ceded by the amending of the constitution under article 368.
  • Supreme court declare, settlement of boundary dispute between Indian and foreign country do not required constitutional amendment, required only executive action.
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Friday, October 18, 2019

MCQs questions and answers base on Preamble of the Indian constitution

Read :-Preamble of the Indian constitution
1. Preamble is important, due to these following reasons:

  1. Preamble contains the essence of the constitution - its values & goals.
  2. it has the basic features of the constitution.
  3. If there is any lack of clarity in the constitution, the judiciary turns to the preamble in its interpretation of the relevant provision.
  4. It is a microcosm of the constitution.
Which of the above statement is/are true ?
a) 1 & 4 only
b) 1, 2 & 4 only
c) 1, 3 & 4 only
d) All of the above
Answer:-d

2. Preamble is important, due to these following reasons:

  1. The Supreme Court in the Berubari case ruled that preamble is a part of the constitution.
  2. In Keshavananda Bharti case reverse the decision & ruled that preamble is not a part of the constitution.
Which of the above statement is/are true ?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 & 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer:-d

3. Which of the given statements is incorrect.
a) According to the Supreme Court in the Keshvananda Bharti case preamble can not be amended.
b) Sovereignty means that there is no authority above the government either outside or inside the country.
c) The constitution 42nd Amendment Act 1976 introduced the words sociolist, secular & integrity into the preamble.
d) The concept of Basic features was introduced by the Supreme Court in the Berubari Case 1960.
Answer:-d

4. Consider the following statements.

  1. Socialism means ownership of productive forces by the government so that they benefit people equitably.
  2. Distributive Justice is a part of the socialist societies.
  3. Popular sovereignty means that no law or rule is legitimate unless it rests directly / or indirectly on the consent of the people.
  4. The world people in the preamble means representatives of the people in the parliament & thus implies parliamentary sovereignty in an indirect democracy like ours.
Which of the above statement is/are true ?

a) 1 & 4 only
b) 1, 2 & 4 only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above
Answer:-c


6. Which of the following word have not been written in the preamble of the Indian Constitution?
a) Sovereign

b) Socialist

c) Democratic

d) Indians
Answer:-. d

7. Which of the following statements is not true?
a) The date of implementation of Indian Constitution is November 26, 1949
b) The “Secular” word was added by the 42nd Constitution Amendment
c) The 42nd Constitutional Amendment was done in 1976
d) Social, Economic and political justice has been taken from the Russian Revolution in the Indian Constitution
Answer:- a


8. Which statement is not correct in the case of "Sovereign India"?
a) India is not dependent on any country
b) India is not a colony of any other country
c) India can give any part of its country to any other country
d) India is obliged to obey the UN in its internal affairs
Answer:-d

9. Which year is related to Berubari Case?
a) 1972
b) 1976
c) 1970
d) 1960
Answer:-d

9. What is the true meaning of "Secular"?
a) All religions are equal in the eyes of the government
b) Special importance to a religion related to minorities
c) One religion is promoted by the government
d) None of the following
Answer:-a

10. What is the meaning of "social equality" in the Indian Constitution?
a) Lack of opportunities
b) Lack of equality
c) Equal opportunities for all sections of the societies
d) None of the following
Answer-c

11. Who among the following said that the preamble of the Indian Constitution is "The Key note of the Constitution"?
a) Ernest Barker
b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Dr. Ambedkar
d) Nelson Mandela
Answer-a

12. Which of the following statements is true?
a) In the Berubari case the Supreme Court had said that the preamble of the Constitution is not a part of the Constitution
b) In the Keshavanand Bharti case, the Supreme Court had said that the preamble of the Constitution is part of the Constitution
c) "Preamble" of the Indian Constitution has been taken from the Constitution of Canada
d) None of the above
Answer-d

13. "The language of Preamble" of Indian constitution is taken from the constitution of......
a) America
b) Canada
c) Australia
d) Ireland
Answer:-c
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Thursday, October 17, 2019

Preamble of the Indian constitution



Preamble of the Indian constitution
  • Introduction
  • Text of the preamble
  • Ingredient of the Preamble
  • keywords explanation
  • Case related preamble
  • Amendment of the preamble
  • Current issues on preamble
  • Questions base on preamble
Introduction
  • American constitution was first to have preamble.
  • Many countries including India follow the practices.
  • It contains essence and summary of the constitution.
  • N A Palkhivala,a constitutional expert,Called the Preamble as identity card of the Indian Constitution.
  • The preamble of Indian constitution is based on objective resolution,drafted and moved by J L Nehru and adopted by the constitution assembly.
Text of the preamble with keywords explanation
We, The People of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:-
JUSTICE - Social, Economic and Political;
LIBERTY - of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY - of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY - assuring the dignity of the nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

Ingredient of the Preamble
  • source of authority of the constitution:-Preamble states that the source of the authority of the constitution derived from the people of India
  • Nature of the State::- It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republican State.
  • Objective of the constitution:-It specifies Justice,liberty,equality and fraternity.
  • Date of adoption of the Indian constitution:-26 November,1949
keywords explanation
Sovereign
  • India is neither a dependent not dominated by other Nation.
  • India is free to take decision on the internal or external matter.
  • India's sovereign is not affected being the membership in UN, commonwealth.
  • India can acquire a foreign territory or cede a part of its territory in favor of foreign State.
Socialist:-
  • The term Socialist has been inserted in the Constitution of India by 42nd Amendment Act, 1976,contain in the form of certain Directive Principle of State Policy.
  • Indian socialism is democratic socialism(mixed economy mean coexistence of private and public sector,not communistic socialism(Involve in nationalization all production and distribution and abolition of private sector)
  • Supreme court said aim of the Democratic socialism is to eradicate poverty,inequality,ignorance. 
  • In the era of the LPG-1991(Liberalization,privatization and Globalization) has diluted the socialistic pattern of Indian State. 
Secular:
  • Secular term was added 42nd amendment of the constitution,although the nature of secular state present in the fundamental right(art 25-28) of the constitution .
  • Indian constitution adopt positive concept of secularism mean State give the same status to all religion, on the other hand western concept secularism,State is separated from the religion.
Democratic:-
  • It is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty,Possessed supreme power in the hands of the people.
  • Democracy is two types Direct democracy(People exercise their supreme power directly by referendum,initiative,recall and plebiscite, ex-Switzerland) and Indirect democracy(People send their representative{MP,MLA} to make law on behalf them.)
  • Democracy is not only of the political democracy,but also social and economic democracy.
Republic:-
  • Democratic polity can be classified into two categories-1)monarchy(Head of the State is no elected,ex-UK) 2)Republic(head of the State is elected{directly or indirectly ex-India,US,President is elected})
  • Republic gives political Sovereignty and all office to the citizen without discrimination.
Justice
  • The term justice(Taken from Russian revolution-1917) embraces in three different forms:-social,economical and political secured by the various provisions of the Fundamental Right(Political Justice) and Directive Principle of State Policy (economical and social justice)
  • Social justice:-denote equal treatment of all citizen without discrimination base on caste,sex,colour,religion and so on.
  • Political justice:- all the citizens have equal political rights,equal access of all political offices and equal voice in the government.
  • Economic justice:-no discrimination on the basis of economic factor.
Liberty: -
  • It means absence of restrictions on the activities of an individual and providing opportunity for developing individual personality.
  • Preamble secures to citizens of India liberty of thought,expression,faith,belief and worship.
  • Liberty is not mean that do what you want, there are reasonable restrictions.
  • Idea of liberty,equality and fraternity come from France revolution.
Equality
  • Restriction of special privilege of a particular society,provide adequate opportunity to all individuals without discrimination.
  • The provision embraces three types of equality-civic(fundamental right),political(universal adult suffrage)and economical(DPSP-equal pay for equal work)
Fraternity
  • It means sense of brotherhood.
  • Fundamental duties articles 51A-citizen of india should promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood.
  • It was added in 42nd amendment of the constitution 1976.
  • Unity and integrity cover both psychological and territorial dimension of national integration.
Case related preamble
one of the controversies about the preamble is ,whether it is a part of constitution or not
Berubari union case(1960):-Supreme court said:- preamble as General purposes behind the  several provision of the constitution.Terms use, have more than one meaning and ambiguous.Despite recognition of the significance of the preamble, supreme court opened that preamble is not the part of the constitution.
Kesavananda Bharati case(1973):-Supreme court reject the early opinion and said the preamble is the part of the constitution.
LIC India case(1995):-Supreme court again held that the preamble is the integral part of the constitution.
Note: Preamble is neither source of power to legislature nor prohibition upon the powers of legislature. It is non-justiceable in Nature and not enforceable in any court of law.
Amendment of the preamble
In Kesavananda Bharati case SC held that Preamble can be amended, subject to the condition that no amendment is done to the ‘basic features’.
The Preamble has been amended only once so far, in 1976, by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, which has added three new words—Socialist, Secular and Integrity.


MCQs Practice base on preamble
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Monday, October 14, 2019

Prelims booster compilation September, 2019

Prelims booster compilation September, 2019

Fit India Movement 
  • Envisioned by the Prime Minister, the nation-wide Fit India Movement aims to motivate every Indian to incorporate simple, easy ways of staying fit in their everyday life.
  • National Sports Day: It is celebrated on 29 August, on the birth anniversary of hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP)
  • It is a World Bank aided, multi-state livelihood project under the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), launched in 2012
  • Aim to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most disadvantaged, in four North Eastern States.
  • The project has focussed on five development strategies, namely, social empowerment, economic empowerment, partnership development, project management and livelihood & value chain developments.
Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
  • In 2006, adhoc CAMPA was established for the management of Compensatory afforestation fund.
  • These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest and (iii) other project specific payments. 
  • The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
  • According to the Act’s provision, a company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation.
  • For afforestation, the company should pay to plant new trees in the alternative land provided to the state. 
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Under UNCLOS, which India ratified in 1995, the sea and resources in the water and the seabed are classified into three zones — the internal waters (IW), the territorial sea (TS) and the exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
  • The IW is on the landward side of the baseline — it includes gulfs and small bays. Coastal states treat IW like land.
  • The TS extends outwards to 12 nautical miles from the baseline — coastal nations enjoy sovereignty over airspace, sea, seabed and subsoil and all living and non-living resources therein.
  • The EEZ extends outwards to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. Coastal nations have sovereign rights for exploration, exploiting, conserving and managing all the natural resources therein.

Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)

  • PM Modi will launch an International CDRI during the UN Climate Action Summit in New York.
  • The Coalition’s secretariat will be set up in New Delhi.
  • It creates a mechanism to assist countries for upgrading their capacities and practices with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
  • It will bring together technical expertise from a multitude of stakeholders

National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)


  • National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM), Conferred The Prestigious SKOCH Governance Gold Award.
  • Ministry/Department : Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
  • It is Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  • Objective is to uplift urban poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development.

Ballistic missile Ghaznavi

  • It is Pakistan’s surface-to-surface ballistic missile.
  • It is capable of delivering multiple types of warheads up to 290 kms
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Firoz Shah Tughlaq:
  • Delhi’s Feroz Shah Kotla stadium is set to be renamed Arun Jaitley Stadium 
  • Born in 1309 and ascended the throne of Delhi after the demise of his cousin Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
  • He was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty that ruled over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD. Tughlaq was in power from 1351 to 1388 AD.
  • Contribution
  1. He established the Diwan-i-Khairat — office for charity.
  2. He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan — department of slave
  3. He established Sarais (rest house) for the benefits of merchants and other travellers etc.

‘Build for Digital India’ programme
  • Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and Google have signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme.
  • The programme will give engineering students a platform to develop market-ready, technology-based solutions that address key social problems.
  • It will provide great exposure to students in dealing with real world problems and develop deeper understanding of how newer technologies can be used to solve them
Samudrayaan’ project
  • It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals.
  • It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies.
  • The project has been undertaken by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). 
  • If the ‘Samudrayaan’ project is successful, India will join the league of developed nations in the exploration of minerals from oceans.
  • India could be the first developing country to undertake such a project
Interpol Red Notice(RN)
interpol notices
interpol notices

  • Interpol describes an RN as “a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action”.
  • RNs contain information that helps identify wanted persons, such as their names, dates of birth, nationality, and physical attributes such as the colour of their hair and eyes, as well as pictures and biometric data such as fingerprints, if they are available
  • An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.

Key notes about Interpol:

  • Interpol is global police co-operation agency and a non-governmental organization (NGO). 
  • It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923. 
  • Its headquartered is located at Lyon, France. 
  • It is the world’s largest international police organization, with 194 member countries (including India) and second-largest international organization after United Nations in terms of international representation. 
  • Its work focuses on public safety and battling terrorism, crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes, environmental crime etc. 
Arctic Council:
  •  Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental body set up in 1996 by the Ottawa declaration to promote cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States together with the indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants. 
  • Council has the eight circumpolar countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark (Greenland and Faroe Islands), Canada, US and Russia) as member states
  • Observer status is open to Non-governmental organizations, Non-littoral states as well as to Intergovernmental and Inter-Parliamentary organizations.
  • India has an observer status in the council.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • Context: The 14th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD COP 14) begins in New Delhi.
  • India took over the Presidency of the COP from China
  • It is established in 1994, the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
  • the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
Project REPLAN (REducing PLastic in Nature):

  • Launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). 
  • It aims to make carry bags by mixing processed and treated plastic waste with cotton fibre rags in the ratio 20:80. 
  • The made paper is found to have good strength and durability. 
Country’s longest electrified rail tunnel

  • India’s longest electrified rail tunnel was recently inaugurated in Andhra Pradesh.
North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited (NERAMAC)

  • The NERAMAC is a pioneer marketing organization in the field of Agri-Horti sector,involved in supporting farmers right from the fields and up to the markets to the end consumers through registered FPO/FPCs.
  • It was incorporated in the year 1982 as a Government of India Enterprise and operating under the administrative control of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

  • Founded in 2002, the Global Fund is a partnership between governments, civil society, the private sector and people affected by the diseases.
  • The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization.
  • It aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals
  • The organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland

Mussels
  • Mussels are a small, edible sea animal that has a dark shell with two parts that close tightly together
  • Scientists are deploying mussels across the oceans to absorb microplastics and other pollutants in the fight against water pollution.
  • Mussels have long been used as “bio-indicators” of the health of the seas, lakes and rivers they inhabit.
One nation-one ration card

  • It will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
  • This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption
ANDREX Project

  • The project seeks to assess the role of the Weddell gyre in driving the southern closure of the meridional overturning circulation, in ventilating the deep global ocean, and in sequestering carbon and nutrients in the global ocean abyss.
  • Scientists have discovered that, contrary to existing assumptions, biological processes far out at sea are the most important factors determining how the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide.
  • This enhances the understanding of the link between the Southern Ocean — next to Antarctica — and the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels

Secondary Market For Corporate Loans

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) constituted Panel, headed by T.N. Manoharan, has given some suggestions for developing the secondary market for corporate loans in the country.
    Secondary Market

Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment
  • It is a joint research mission between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) teams
  • It aims to study the viability of diverting an asteroid by crashing a spacecraft into its surface.
  • The project aims to deflect the orbit of one of the two Didymos asteroids between Earth and Mars, with an observer craft gauging the effect of the impact more effectively than ground-based observers could manage
ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX)
The first ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX) between regional bloc- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and United States is being held at the Sattahip Naval Base in Thailand.

Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019
•As part of the ongoing Indo-US defence cooperation, a joint military training, Exercise Yudh Abhyas – conducted at Joint Base Lewis Mc Chord, Washington, USA.


Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA)
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) declared four individuals – Masood Azhar, Hafiz Saeed, Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi and Dawood Ibrahim – as terrorists under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
  • UAPA was amended in 2004,2008,2012 and 2019. 
key provisions of amended act
  • Empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorist,Previously only organization
  • Empowers the National Investigation Agency (NIA) to seize properties,previously required permission from the Director General of Police.
  • Allows NIA officers, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate,previously only DySP or ACP 
Concern
Opposition parties have raised concern over the 2019 amendment act, could also be misused against political opponents-civil society activists who spoke against the government may be branded as “terrorists.”
Apache helicopters
  • Indian Air Force (IAF) formally inducted 8 US-made Apache AH-64E helicopters at Pathankot Air Force station.
  • In 2015, IAF had signed a multi-billion dollar contract with US government and Boeing Ltd for 22 Apache helicopters. 
  • Apache is one of world’s most advanced multi-role combat helicopters-Capability(all weather capable,Electronic Warfare) to shoot fire and forget anti-tank guided missiles, air to air missiles, rockets and other ammunitions
Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs).
  • Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has entered into 26 Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs) in the financial year (April to August, 2019)
  • It is an agreement between a taxpayer and the tax authority determining the Transfer Pricing methodology for pricing the tax payer’s international transactions for future years.
Dadabhai Naoroji
  • September 4, 2019 was the 194th birth anniversary of Dadabhai Naoroji, known “Grand Old Man of India”
  • Naoroji was a professor of Gujarati, mathematics, and natural philosophy and also worked as a businessman.
  • In 1865 and 1866, Naoroji helped found the London Indian Society and the East India Association respectively
  • First Indian member of the British parliament in 1886
  • He was Congress president thrice, in 1886, 1893, and 1906.
  • Dadabhai Naoroji was among the key proponents of the ‘Drain Theory’,- in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’
External benchmark rates
  • The Reserve Bank of India has made it mandatory for all banks to link all new floating rate loans( interest varies with market conditions)(i.e. personal/retail loans, loans to MSMEs) to an external benchmark with effect from 1st October 2019.
  • Banks can choose from one of the four external benchmarks — repo rate, three-month treasury bill yield, six-month treasury bill yield or any other benchmark interest rate published by Financial Benchmarks India Private Ltd(recognised by the Reserve bank of India as an independent Benchmark administrator)
  • At present, interest rates on loans are linked to a bank’s marginal cost of fund-based interest rate, known as the Marginal Cost of Lending Rate (MCLR).
Nuakhai
Nuakhai

  • Harvesting festival of Odisha
  • It is also called Nuakhai Parab or Nuakahi Bhetghat.
Measles:
 It is a highly contagious viral disease. Spread: Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons.

Rubella
Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash

Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected
  • Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become a long-term infection.
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body, and causes chronic, or lifelong, infection.
  • There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Eat Right India Movement
  • It is a crucial preventive healthcare measure to trigger social and behavioural change
  • Due to increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases, widespread deficiencies of vitamins and minerals and rampant food-borne illnesses
  • It was launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
  • Movement is aligned with the government’s flagship public health programmes such as POSHAN Abhiyaan, Anemia Mukt Bharat, Ayushman Bharat Yojana and Swachh Bharat Mission.
Indo–Thai CORPAT•28th edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) between the Indian Navy (IN) and the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) is being held.

Institutes of Eminence Scheme

  • The institutes of eminence scheme under the Union human resource development (HRD) ministryaims to project Indian institutes to global recognition.
  • The selected institutes will enjoy complete academic and administrative autonomy
  • Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for the eminence tag.
  • The public institutions on the list will then be eligible for a government grant of ₹1,000 crore.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’

  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme was launched in January, 2015
  • aimed at promoting gender equality, improving the Child Sex Ratio and the significance of educating girls.
  • It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.
Indus Valley Civilizations
  • Study of DNA from skeletal remains excavated from the Harappan cemetery at Rakhigarhi has provided new insights into Indian history.
  • The study shows that hunter-gatherers of South Asia (who later formed Harappa Civilization) have an independent origin and are not descendent of Eurasian farmers.
  • The study done through DNA analysis of Rakhigarhi thus challenges Aryan Invasion theory
 National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) 

  • set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
  • works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
SLINEX 
  • SLINEX is a bi-lateral maritime fleet exercise between Navies of India and Sri Lanka
  • This has helped the two Navies in understanding each other’s procedures and contributes towards maritime security in the region.
Great Indian Bustards (GIB)
  • IUCN status: critically endangered.
  • Found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972 and in the CMS Convention and in Appendix I of CITES.
  • Protected areas:Desert National Park Sanctuary — Rajasthan, Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary – Andhra Pradesh and Karera Wildlife Sanctuary– Madhya Pradesh.
Global Liveability Index
  • Indian cities have not fared too well in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s (considered 140 cities for rankings)Global Livability Index for 2019.
  • Among the BRICS countries, Suzhou from China was ranked highest at 75, while India’s capital New Delhi was ranked lowest at 118th.
  • The ranking is based on a particular country’s scores in five broad categories, namely:
  1. Stability
  2. Healthcare
  3. Culture and Environment
  4. Education
  5. Infrastructure
C-Sat-Fi; XGSPON and CiSTB
  • Union Minister for Communications launched Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT’s) latest innovations, “C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi”, “XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network)” and “C-DOT’s Interoperable Set Top Box (CiSTB).
  • C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi): C-Sat-Fi is based on the optimal utilization of wireless and satellite communication to extend connectivity to the remote islands and difficult terrains
  • XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network): it is an effective solution to fulfil the rapidly increasing demands of high network speeds for applications like IPTV, HD Video Streaming, Online Gaming and other cloud based services. 
  • CiSTB (C-DOT’s Interoperable Set Top Box): Based on a portable smart card like a mobile SIM, this solution will revolutionize the experience of the Cable TV operators by offering them a high degree of choice, ease and convenience without having to replace the once installed STB. 
Mega Food Park
  • Minister of Food Processing Industries inaugurated Telangana’s first food park.
  • Under the food park scheme, the Centre provides financial assistance of up to ₹50 crore.(Know about scheme types)
  • The Mega Food Park Scheme is based on “Cluster” approach 
Motive behind mega food park
  • give boost to the food processing sector by adding value and reducing food wastage at each stage of the supply chain with particular focus on perishables.
  • provide direct and indirect employment opportunities
  • double the farmer incom by 2022
  • Export boosting 
  • connection between buyers and sellers 
  • 5 trillions economy 
  • poverty and hunger reduction
  • sustainable use of food 
Strengthening Local Democracy(for mains)
Democratic decentralisation has little in India. Over 25 years after the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments (they mandated the establishment of panchayats and municipalities as elected local governments) gave a range of powers and responsibilities and made them accountable to the people for their implementation, very little and actual progress has been made in this direction. 
Key issues:
  • volume of money set local governments for them is inadequate to meet their basic requirements. 
  • Much of the money given is inflexible( Local government is not free to use money ,several conditions and restrictions 
  • Local governments do not have the staff to perform even basic tasks. 
Way forward:
  • grama sabha should be organised through smaller discussions where everybody can really participate
  • Use of Short Message Services, or social media groups could be used for facilitating discussions between members of a grama sabha.
  • Local government organisational structures have to be strengthened.
  • Local governments must be enabled to hold State departments accountable and to provide quality, corruption free service to them, through service-level agreements.
  • Increase their taxation area,if they collect taxes, their voters will never forgive them for misusing their funds. 
Conclusion
  • India’s efforts in decentralisation represent one of the largest experiments in deepening democracy.
  • We have given ourselves a reasonably robust democratic structure for local governance over the last two decades and more.
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
  •  7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) ministerial meeting of 10 members of ASEAN countries and their six FTA (free trade agreement) partners is being held in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • RCEP is proposed between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
  • RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.
  • aims-boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff and non-tariff barriers,provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates and liberalise investment norms 
Why is India concerned,what India needs to do?(For mains)
India concerned
  • Greater access to Chinese goods may have impact on the Indian manufacturing sector- massive trade deficit with China-To reduce deficit India proposed differential market access strategy for China.
  •  RCEP countries demand for lowering customs duties on a number of products and greater access to the market than India has been willing to provide.
  • The current account deficit (CAD) touched 8 per cent of GDP, and the agreement in the present state of negotiations would mean forgoing a substantial part of the revenues.
  • The free movement of investments will benefit investors in the US, Singapore, Japan and China, but very few Indians will be taking advantage of this.
Why India should not miss RCEP?
  • make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exportsin each RCEP market, and the ensuing export-losses contributing to foreign exchange shortages
  • India would get greater market access in other countries not only in terms of goods, but in services and investments also.
Way ahead:
  • Bilateral talks between India and China are crucial for an early conclusion of RCEP negotiations as agreed by other members
  • Indian policymakers need to be mindful of domestic sectors’ concerns before agreeing on terms of deal.
  • Need to improve our competitiveness in the economy
UN Peacekeeping
  • Context: India calls for reforms in peacekeeping at UNSC debate.
  • United Nations Peacekeeping was created in 1948. Its first mission involved the establishment of the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
  • UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:
  1. Consent of the parties.
  2. Impartiality
  3. Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana
  • Aim: To improve the life of small and marginal farmers of the country.
  • voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years
  • monthly pension of Rs. 3000/– will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 years. The spouse is also eligible to get a separate pension of Rs.3000/- upon making separate contributions to the Fund.
6th schedule of the constitution
  • deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution Of India.
  • The total tribal population in Ladakh region is more than 97%. The region is inhabited by following Scheduled Tribes, namely:Balti,Beda,Bot, Boto,Brokpa, Drokpa, Dard, Shin,Changpa etc
  • Key provisions: governor is empowered to organise,divide the district into several autonomous regions. and re-organise the autonomous districts.
  • autonomous districts-Composition-4[nominated by the governor ]+ 26[elected on the basis of adult franchise.]
  • Term:-Elected members -5 years,nominated-pleasure of the governor.
  • Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council[can make laws on certain specified matters like land, forests, canal water, shifting cultivation, village administration, inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, social customs and so on. But all such laws require the assent of the governor.]
  • The acts of Parliament or the state legislature do not apply to autonomous districts and autonomous regions or apply with specified modifications and exceptions.
  • governor can appoint a commission to examine and report on any matter relating to the administration
    Government e Marketplace (GeM)
    • GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries, that has used technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.
    MPATGM missile:
    • Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile is an Indian third-generation fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile.
    • Developed by DRDO.
    • Incorporated with state-of-the-art Infrared Imaging Seeker along with advanced avionics.
    “Kartarpur Corridor” project
    • The corridor – often dubbed as the “Road to Peace” – will connect Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan’s Kartarpur with Dera Baba Nanak shrine in India’s Gurdaspur district.
    • The construction of the corridor will allow visa-free access to pilgrims from India. 
    • Pakistan has agreed in principle to allow visa-free, year-long travel to the Sikh shrine.
    • The gurdwara in Kartarpur stands on the bank of the Ravi, about 120 km northeast of Lahore.
    National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons
    • It is a pension scheme for the shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore
    • Beneficiary is required to have an Aadhaar card and a saving bank/ Jan-dhan Account passbook only.
    • He/ She should be within 18 to 40 years of age group.
    • It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme
    • The Central Government shall give 50 % share of the monthly contribution and remaining 50% contribution shall be made by the beneficiary
    • It has a provision for minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000/- monthly on attaining the age of 60 years.
    District mineral foundations(DMFs)
    • They are non-profit truststo work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.
    • Jurisdiction: Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
    • Chhattisgarh became the first state to amend DMF rules.(inclusion of 10 Gram Sabha members directly from mining-affected areas in the DMF Governing Council .In Scheduled Areas, at least 50 per cent of the Gram Sabha members must be from Scheduled Tribes (ST).)
    Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY):

    The programme is meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).

    National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) project
    • It is an ambitious counter terrorism programme.
    • It will utilise technologies like Big Data and analytics to study and analyse the huge amounts of data from various intelligence and enforcement agencies to help track suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
    Drought Toolbox
    • It's a kind of knowledge bank that may be used by vulnerable countries, such as India, to reduce drought risk and be better prepared and effectively respond to it.
    • At the ongoing 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), a Drought Toolbox has been launched
    Bioterrorism
    • A form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs). This is also referred to as germ warfare.
    • The threat of bioterrorism is increasing as a result of the rise of technical capabilities, the rapid expansion of the global biotechnology industry, and the growth of loosely sophisticated networks of transnational terrorist groups that have expressed interest in bioterrorism
    Jan Soochna Portal
    • The first-ever public information portal was launched in Rajasthan – named Jan Soochna Portal – to provide information about government authorities and departments suo motu to the public 
    • The portal would ensure compliance with Section 4(2) of the RTI Act mandating the public authorities to disclose information in the public domain, so that the people need not file applications under the law to obtain information
    Uniform Civil Code (UCC)
    • Article 44 of the Constitution says that there should be a Uniform Civil Code
    • It is a proposal to have a generic set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion
    Water on Exoplanet
    • Astronomers have for the first time discovered water in the atmosphere of exoplanet – K2-18b, along with Earth-like temperatures that could support life.
    • An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System
    • The K2-18b planet orbits the cool dwarf star K2-18(Leo constellation of the milkyway galaxy)
    • Scientists used archive data from 2016 and 2017 captured by the ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope
    Collegium of Supreme Court judges
    • The Collegium of judges does not figure in the Constitution.
    • It is the Supreme Court’s invention
    • Collegium is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges and recommends the transfer of Chief Justices and other judges.
    Bamboonomics
    • a movement to combat desertification and climate change which will involve the tribal community of India
    • movement will ensure that tribals can earn a livelihood without causing environmental harm.
    • launched at the COP 14 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
    Central Adverse List

    • The Centre has removed from the Central Adverse List names of few foreign nationals involved in anti-India activities
    • It is a list maintained by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • The list contains: Names of individuals who supported the Khalistan movement in 1980s and 90s but left India to take asylum in foreign countries,individuals who are suspected to have links with terrorist outfitsor have violated visa norms in their previous visit to India and persons who have indulged in criminal activities or have been accused of sexual crimes against children in their respective countries.
    International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer
    • World Ozone Day-September 16 ,Theme(2019): 32 Years and Healing.
    • Ozone layer: Absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light which is harmful to human life and other life forms.
    • It Absorbs about 97 to 99% of ultraviolet rays and maintain the ozone-oxygen cycle.
    • Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon tetrachloride, halons and methyl chloroform-are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).
    Samudra Laksamana:
    •The Indian Navy and Malaysian Navy had recently participated in the bilateral exercise ‘Samudra Laksamana

    Pulikali
    Pulikali

    • known as Tiger Dance
    • folk art of Kerala, performed on the fourth day of Onam festival.
    • Artists wear a tiger mask, paint their bodies like tigers and dance to the rhythm of traditional percussion instruments such as thakil, udukku and chenda
    Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

    • PMMVY has achieved a significant milestone by crossing one crore beneficiaries- Rs. 4,000 crores was distributed.
    • The scheme was launched in 2017 as Centrally SponsoredScheme and implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development
    • It is a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme under which cash benefits of Rs. 5,000 in three instalments  are provided to pregnant women in their bank account directly to meet enhanced nutritional needs and partially compensate for wage loss.
    PACEsetter Fund programme
    • It is INR 50 crore (USD 7.9 million) fund jointly capitalized by the Governments of the Republic of India and the United States of America.
    • Constituted by India and the USA in 2015.
    • It is a joint fund to provide early-stage grant funding to accelerate the commercialization of innovative off-grid clean energy products, systems, and business models.
    • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy awards grants to four projects in second round of PACEsetter Fund
    Lotus Tower
    • Sri Lanka unveils South Asia’s tallest tower (called Lotus Tower) in Colombo.
    • It is 350-metre-tall and in the shape of Lotus
    • It comprises a hotel, a TV tower, restaurants, a mall, a telecommunications museum, and auditorium.

    Recognition of Prior Learning – RPL
    • RPL is a key element under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
    • It Align the competencies of the unregulated sectors of the country with the National Skills Qualification Framework
    • Enhance the chances of employment of individuals and provide them with more options for higher education
    • Minister, Skill Development and Entrepreneurship distributes certificates to RPL trainees under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.

    #FridaysForFuture:
    • It is a movement that began in August 2018, after 15 years old Greta Thunberg sat in front of the Swedish parliament every school day for three weeks, to protest against the lack of action on the climate crisis

    Leather Sector Skill Council (LSSC):
    • It is a non-profit organisation dedicated to meeting the demand for skilled workforce in the leather industry in India.
    • It was set up in 2012 as one of the key sector skill councils approved by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).
    Shodh Shuddh:
    • It is a Plagiarism Detection Software (PDS) launched by the union Ministry of HRD.
    • Implemented by Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET), an Inter University Centre (IUC) of UGC.
    • It will significantly help to improve the quality of research outcomes by ensuring the originality of ideas and publication of the research scholars.

    West Bank
    • The West Bank is a landlocked territory, which is bordered by Jordan to the east and the Green Line separating it and Israel in the north, south and west.
    • The territory was occupied by Israel during the six-day war in 1967.
    • Under the Oslo Accords, which was signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in September 1993, the two sides agreed that West Bank and Gaza Strip would be treated as a single territorial unit.






    Sagittarius A
    • It is a supermassive black hole 26,000 light years away from Earth, near the Galactic Centre, or the centre of the Milky Way.

    Shondol
    • Shondol is famous dance, which used to be performed by artists for King of Ladakh on special occasions.
    • Shondol dance has created history by entering into the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest Ladakhi dance, which involved 408 women
    • During the festival, it was not only focused on Zero usage of Plastic but also sensitise the religious and community leaders on plastic waste management and recycling

    Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PM-JAY)
    • Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PM-JAY) has completed one year and has recorded 46.4 lakh hospital treatments worth ₹7,500 crore
    • The scheme gives annual healthcare benefits of up to ₹5 lakh for every entitled family.
    • The scheme has resulted in saving of over ₹12,000 crore to the beneficiary families.
    • PM-JAY aims to ensure improved healthcare delivery, through a combination of government hospitals and strategic purchasing of services from private hospitals, in health care deficit areas

    Social stock exchanges
    • In 2019-20 Union Budget, the Finance Minister had proposed a social stock exchange within the ambit of SEBI, for social enterprises and voluntary organisations working for social welfare to help them raise capital through debt, equity and mutual fund.
    • A social stock exchange, broadly, is understood as a platform that allows investors to buy shares in a social enterprise that has been vetted by the exchange.
    • In London, a similar type of platform acts more as a directory connecting social enterprises with potential investors.

    Dadasaheb Phalke  Award
    • The country’s highest film honour, the DadasahebPhalke award, will be presented this year to Amitabh Bachchan.
    • DadasahebPhalke (1870–1944), was an Indian film-maker who directed India’s first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra (1913). He is regarded as “the father of Indian cinema.”
    • It is given to people for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema”.
    • It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals (an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting).
    • The award was first presented in 1969. The first recipient of the award was actress Devika Rani, “the first lady of Indian cinema.” 
    SASTRA Ramanujan prize
    • The SASTRA Ramanujan prize for 2019 will be awarded to mathematician Adam Harper, Assistant Professor with the University of Warwick, England.
    • The prize was instituted in 2005 and is conferred annually on mathematicians from across the world who are less than 32 years of age, working in an area influenced by the genius Srinivasa Ramanujan.
    • This prize is awarded by SASTRA University on its campus near Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, on Ramanujan’s birth anniversary, December 22.

    Gandhi Solar Park
    • PMModi along with others world leaders inaugurated the Gandhi Solar Park at the UN headquarters on the occasion of Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary.
    • The 50 kWh roof-top solar park having 195 solar panels—each representing a member of the multilateral body – was built by India at a cost of US $1 million

    National Service Scheme (NSS)
    • It is a Central- Sector scheme.
    • Conducted by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
    • Launched in Gandhiji’s Centenary year in 1969.
    • Aim to develop healthy contacts between the students and teachers on the one hand and establishing a constructive linkage between the campus and the community on the other hand.

    Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT)
    • Formally established in July 2017 as a group of companies, dedicated to disrupting terrorist abuse of members’ digital platforms.
    • The original Forum was led by a rotating chair drawn from the founding four companies—Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube—and managed a program of knowledge-sharing, technical collaboration and shared research.
    Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM)
    • EAC-PM is an independent body constituted to give advice on economic and related issues to the Government of India, specifically to the Prime Minister
    • These could be either suo-motu or on reference from the Prime Minister or anyone else.
    • It also includes attending to any other task as may be desired by the Prime Minister from time to time.
    Impeachment
    • Impeachment is the levelling of charges against an elected official by a legislative body. If the charges are proved right, it leads to removal of official from the post.
    • President can be impeached for violation of the Constitution (Article 61)
    • The motion for impeaching President can be introduced in any House of Parliament.
    • After the investigation, the motion of impeachment must be passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by both Houses of the Parliament.
    Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)
    • NSG is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment, and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons
    • NSG controls most of the world’s nuclear trade
    • NSG formed in 1974 consists of 48 members which include the five nuclear weapon states US, UK, France, China, and Russia. 
    • It is an informal grouping, and its guidelines are not binding. Decisions, including on membership, are made by consensus.
    • While the US and other countries support India’s entry into NSG, China has opposed it saying India has not signed the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty.

    Varaha
    • It is an Indian Coast Guard Ship commissioned recently.
    • It will enhance the surveillance and patrolling capabilities of Indian Coast Guard and reinforce their role as ‘Sentinels of our Seas’.
    • It has been designed and built indigenously by Larsen & Toubro (L&T) at its Katupalli ship building yard in North Chennai.
    Sardar Patel National Unity Award
    • It is the Highest Civilian Award for contribution to Unity and Integrity of India.
    • The Award seeks to recognize notable and inspiring contributions to promote the cause of national unity and integrity and to reinforce the value of a strong and united India.
    • The award will be announced on the occasion of the National Unity Day, i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Patel on 31st October.
    • The Award would consist of a medal and a citation. No monetary grant or cash award would be attached to this Award.

    Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
    • India had revoked Article 370 in Jammu & Kashmir which provided the state with special status and bifurcated the state into two Union Territories in August 2019
    • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest inter-governmental organisation after the UN, with the membership of 57 states, covering four continents.
    India discusses Chabahar with Iran
    • PM Modi met Iranian President on the sidelines of UNGA meet and discussed about Chahbahar port of Iran, which India is helping to develop
    • Iran’s Chabahar port is a strategic project that would connect India, Afghanistan and Iran to Central Asia.
    • Iran is facing sanctions from USA after Washington pulled out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action [JCPOA-international deal to limit Iran’s nuclear program in return for lifting economic sanctions imposed on Iran by WestIt was signed by Iran and the P5+1 (China France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) on July 14, 2015.]impacting the progress on port project.
    Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban(PMAY-U)
    • Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA) in Mission mode.
    • It envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022
    • Beneficiaries are poor and people living under EWS(Economically weaker section) and LIG(Lower Income Group) categories in the country.
    • Benefit:-
      1. The government is providing an interest subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which can be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from start of loan date.
      2. The government will grant Rs 1 lakh to all the beneficiaries of the scheme. In addition, Rs 1.5 lakh will be given to all eligible urban poor who want to construct their houses in urban areas or plan to go for renovation in their existing houses.
      3. One can also avail loans under this scheme to build toilets in existing houses.
    • House is to be allotted in the name of adult female member or in joint name and all houses to have toilet facility, drinking water and power supply.
    Quad countries
    • The quadrilateral formation includes Japan, India, United States and Australia
    • All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.
    • Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific.

    National Population Register (NPR)
    • It is a Register of usual residents(a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months or more.) of the country.
    • It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003
    • It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR.

    Project NETRA
    • It is initiated by ISRO
    • an early warning system in space to detect debris and other hazards to Indian satellites.
    Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)
    • established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act 1985.
    • Chairman – Appointed by the Central Government.

    Galo community
    • The Galos are one of the 26 major communities of Arunachal Pradesh.
    • The Galos belong to the Tani group inhabiting Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, besides Tibet.
    • Mopinis the main festival in Galos which is celebrated for the prosperity of the villages
    • The Galos perform Popir dance
    Climate Vulnerability Map of India
    • A pan India climate vulnerability assessment map is being developed for preparing communities and people to meet the challenges arising out of climate change.
    • The map is being developed under a joint project of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
    • The atlas is expected to be ready by the middle of 2020.

    Saraswati Samman
    • The award is presented by the KK Birla Foundation.
    • It is given to an outstanding literary work in any Indian language mentioned in Schedule VIII of the Constitution and published in 10 years preceding the specified award year.
    • It is the highest recognition in the field of Indian literature in the country.
    Bathukamma
    • It is the state festival of Telangana
    •  ‘Bathukamma’ means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’.
    • The festival was traditionally celebrated by women across the state.
    ,