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Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Prelims booster compilation august 2019

BASIC countries
  • Context:countries recently held their 28th Ministerial meeting on Climate Change in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  •  a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
  • Significance : common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds for fight climate change.
  •  agreement is not legally binding.
Legislative Council
  • ContextThe Madhya Pradesh government plans to initiate steps towards creation of a Legislative Council.
  • Parliament may by law(Article 169 of the constitution) create or abolish the second chamber in a state if the Legislative Assembly of that state passes a resolution with special majority.
  • Currently, six states have Legislative Councils( Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana)
  • Strength of the house:not exceed 1/3 of the total number of the members in the legislative Assembly of that state and not less than 40.
members of the Council election:-
  • 1.1/3rd- elected by members of the Assembly
  • 1/3rd- consisting of members of municipalities, district boards and other local authorities  of that state.
  • 1/12th - consisting of teachers.
  • 1/12th-registered graduates.
  •  remaining members(distinguished themselves in literature, science, art, the cooperative movement, and social service.) are nominated by the Governor

Geographical indication (GI)

  •  It is under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade has recently registered 4 new GIs.
  1. Palani Panchamirtham:Palani Panchamirtham, an abishega Prasadam, is one of the main offerings for the presiding deity.first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been bestowed with the GI tag.
  2. Tawlhlohpuan:-It is a medium to heavy, compactly woven, good quality fabric from Mizoram.
  3.  Mizo Puanchei:Mizo Puanchei is a colourful Mizo shawl/textile, from Mizoram.
  4. Tirur Betel leaf:Tirur betel mainly cultivated in Malappuram District of Kerala, is valued both for its mild stimulant action and medicinal properties.
Parker Solar Probe
  • Context: On August 12, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe completed a year in service
  • It is also the closest a human-made object has ever gone to the Sun.
  • goals for the mission are to trace how energy and heat move through the solar corona and to explore what accelerates the solar wind,solar energetic particles.
  • corona is hotter than the surface of the sun. The corona gives rise to the solar wind,
Delimitation of Constituencies
  • Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of Lok Sabha and state Assembly seats to represent changes in population.
  • objective of delimitation is to provide equal representation to equal segments of a population.
  •  its orders are final and cannot be questioned before any court
  •  Article 82the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.
  • Composition: The commission is made up of a retired Supreme Court judge, the Chief Election Commissioner and the respective State Election Commissioners.
  • case of difference of opinion among members of the Commission, the opinion of the majority prevails.
National Sports Awards•Arjuna Award: is given for consistency outstanding performance for four years.
•Dronacharya Award: for coaches for producing medal winners at prestigious International sports events.
•Dhyan Chand Award : for life time contribution to sports development.
•MAKA Trophy:Overall top performing university in inter-university tournaments is given Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy.


satellite launch vehicle
satellite launch vehicle


  • Context
    : The second moon mission of India, the Chandrayaan-2 has been precisely inserted in defined orbit.
  • It was launched  by powerful Geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV)-Mk-111 M-1 from Sriharikota
  • the orbiter would revolve around the moon for an yearLander Vikram and Rover Pragyan have a lifespan of 14 days
  •  India will become the fourth country(after united States, Russia and China)  in the world to land a rover on the Moon.
  • Scientific goals include studies of lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.
  • 1st space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region.
UN Security Council
  • Context: Vice President calls for renewed efforts for India to gain permanent membership of the UN Security Council
  • United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the organs of the United Nations
  •  it maintains international peace and security.
  • Members:-fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States(five permanent members)-have veto power.10 non-permanent members(elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms)
Information Fusion Centre (IFC)
  • established at the Navy’s Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) in Gurugram,Haryana
  • white shipping”, or commercial shipping, will be exchanged with countries in the region to improve maritime domain awareness in the Indian Ocean
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
  • aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
  • A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden
Van Mahotsava: 
  • an annual tree planting festival.,started by K. M. Munshi in 1950, the Union Minister for Agriculture and Food at that time.
  • started to create awareness in the mind of the people for the conservation of forests and planting of new trees.
NISHTHA(National Initiative for School Heads and Teachers Holistic Advancement)
  • Context: Union HRD Minister launches NISHTHA to build capacities of 42 Lakh government teachers across the country.
  • world’s largest teachers’ training programme
  • motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students.
  • training modules are developed at national level for all States and UTs
State rooftop solar attractiveness Index (SARAL)
  • ContextSARAL – ‘State Rooftop Solar Attractiveness Index’ was recently launched.
  • first of its kind index to provide a comprehensive overview of state-level measures adopted to facilitate rooftop solar deployment.
  • designed collaboratively by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (SSEF), Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) and Ernst & Young (EY).
  • Karnataka has been placed at the first rank.
  • SARAL currently captures five key aspects:
  1. robustness of policy framework 
  2. implementation environment 
  3. investment climate 
  4. consumer experience 
  5. business ecosystem
    International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  • Established in 1945,principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
  • Only countries are eligible to appear before the ICJ.
  • The ICJ is made up of 15 judges who are elected for a 9 years term by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council
  • ICJ’s jurisdiction:-disputes of a legal nature(submitted to it by countries) and advisory jurisdiction(advisory opinion on legal questions)
 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
 International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
 International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

  • It is also known as Washington Convention and Opened for sign : 1973
  • administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • Secretariat— Geneva (Switzerland).
  • an International agreement to regulate worldwide commercial trade in wild animal and plant species.
  • CITES is legally binding on state parties to the convention
World Trade Organization (WTO) 
  • Context: WTO reforms must be taken up by all member countries: Piyush Goyal.
  • early days of the Silk Road to the creation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the birth of the WTO,played an important role in supporting economic development and promoting peaceful relations among nations.
  • GATT became the only multilateral instrument governing international trade from 1948 until the WTO was established in 1995.
  • In the Marrakesh Agreement, the World Trade Organization (WTO) established.
  • subsidies classification
South-South and Triangular Cooperation:-
  • Context: An international dialogue on South-South and Triangular Cooperation was recently held in New Delhi.
  • Collaboration among Acountries of the South in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and technical domains.
  • Can take place on a bilateral, regional, intraregional or interregional basis.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF):-
  • Context: Financial Action Task Force affiliate Asia Pacific Group (APG) places Pakistan on Blacklist for failing to combat terrorism, money laundering and meeting the required global standards.
  • Established in July 1989 by a Group of Seven (G-7) countries in a Summit held in Paris.
  • An independent inter-governmental body that develops and promotes policies to protect the Global Financial System against terror funding and Money Laundering activities.
  • FATF has 2 types of lists
Black List:-countries which are supporting terror funding and money laundering activities are listed in the Black list.
Grey List:- considered as the safe heaven for supporting terror funding and money laundering; included in this list. The inclusion in this list is not as severe as black listed.

FEDOR(Final Experimental Demonstration Object Research)
  • Context: Russia has launched an unmanned rocket into space.
  • Skybot F-850 is the first humanoid robot to be sent to space by Russia.
  • can emulate movements of the human body, has apparently embraced his mission, describing himself as “an assistant to the ISS crew”.
  • In 2011, NASA sent up Robonaut 2, a humanoid robot developed that had a similar aim of working in high-risk environments.
Baltic Nations:
  • Context: The Vice President concludes his tri-nation tour to the Baltic Nations-Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
  • group the three sovereign states in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • All three countries are members of the European Union, NATO, the eurozone and the OECD.
Baltic Nations
Baltic Nations
Gulf co-operation Council (GCC)
  • The GCC is a political and economic alliance of countries in the Arabian Peninsula.
  • It was established in 1981 to foster socioeconomic, security, and cultural cooperation.
  • Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE are its members.
    Gulf co-operation Council (GCC)
    Gulf co-operation Council (GCC)
    Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
  • Context: Stakeholders’ Consultations by Department of Commerce on RCEP.
  • members-16 {Ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei,Myanmar, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
  • RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.
  • 7th RCEP Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting is being held in Cambodia.
  • RCEP aims to boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff and non-tariff barriers
Image result for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
The James Webb Space Telescope, also called Webb(JWST)
  • It is a large, space-based observatory, optimized for infrared wavelengths, which will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope
  •  It is only at infrared wavelengths that we can see the first stars and galaxies forming after the Big Bang. 
  • James Webb This space-based observatory is named after James E. Webb (1906- 1992), NASA’s second administrator. Webb is best known for leading Apollo, a series of lunar exploration programs that landed the first humans on the Moon
Swatantra Sainik Samman Pension Scheme
  • context-The Supreme Court has slammed the Centre for harassing a 90-year-old freedom fighter who was struggling to get his pension under Swatantra Sainik Samman Pension Scheme.
  • It provides pension to freedom fighters and families of martyrs
  • Implemented by Ministry of Home Affairs (Freedom Fighters Division)
National Agricultural Cooperative Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED)
  • Context: Government to substantially increase the daily supply of onions from its buffer stock held with NAFED.
  • established in 1958, is registered under the Multi State Co-operative Societies Act.
  • It promotes Co-operative marketing of Agricultural Produce to benefit the farmers.
Composite Water Management Index (CWMI)
  • ContextNITI Aayog has released its report on Composite Water Management Index (CWMI).
  • It's aims to create awareness among people and governments about the realities of water crisis in the country.
Composite Water Management Index (CWMI).
Composite Water Management Index (CWMI).
India-Bahrain ties
  • context-PM Narendra Modi paid a state visit to Bahrain on 24-25 August 2019, which was the first ever Prime Ministerial visit from India to Bahrain.
  • enhance cooperation in the field of security, counter-terrorism and the exchange of intelligence and information
  • India  launched the renovation of Shree Krishna temple in Manama, the oldest in the Gulf region.established around 1817 and was built by Thathai Bhatia Hindu community
  •  MoU was also signed between BENEFIT, a Bahrain company handling ATM and POS transactions among others, and National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) for launch of RuPay card in the Gulf Kingdom.
Akademik Lomonosov :-Russian powership to be operated as the world’s first floating nuclear power station
  • The 45th edition of G7 Summit is currently being held in France.
  •  intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975
  • The G7 or ‘Group of Seven’ are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States
  •  G7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters
  • decisions taken by leaders during annual Summits are non-binding
  • The G20 was formed in 1999 to address global economic concerns
  • Apart from the G7 countries, the G20 comprises Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey.
  • India is selected to host a G20 summit in 2022.

Advisory Board for Banking Frauds (ABBF)
  • Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has constituted an ‘Advisory Board for Banking Frauds (ABBF)’ to examine bank fraud of over ₹50 crore and recommend action.
  • Besides the chairman, the Board consists of three other members.
Conservation of Otters
  • The 18th Conference of the Parties (CoP18) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)was recently held in Geneva
  • Members at the Conference have voted to move the smooth-coated otter(Lutrogale perspicillata) from CITES Appendix II to CITES Appendix I
  •  CITES is as an international legally binding agreement 
CITES Appendix:
  • Appendix I includes species “threatened with extinction”. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
  • Appendix II provides a lower level of protection.
  • Appendix III contains species that are protected in at least one country, 
Open Acreage Licensing Policy
  •  part of the Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy, provides uniform licences for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbons
  • Fields are offered under a revenue-sharing model
    National Digital Library(NDL)
  • Human Resource Development Ministry under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology launched NDL in 2018
  • NDL is a digital repository containing textbooks, articles, videos, audio books, lectures, simulations, fiction and all other kinds of learning media.
  • NDL has been integrated with UMANG App(Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance developed by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY)and National e-Governance Division (NeGD) to drive Mobile Governance in India,single platform for all Indian Citizens)
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)

  • aims to provide deposit free LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
  • A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.

Project SURE
  • The SURE project is a commitment by India’s apparel industry to set a sustainable pathway for the Indian fashion industry
  • This framework would help the industry reduce its carbon emissions, increase resource efficiency, tackle waste and water management, and create positive social impact to achieve long-term sustainability targets
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • India for the first time will be hosting the 14th session of the Conference of Parties (COP-14) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) from 2nd -13th September 2019
  • Established in 1994 
  • UNCCD is the only legally binding international agreement linking environment and development issues to the land agenda
  • United Nations has 3 Rio Conventions namely, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). 

Child well-being index
Child well-being index

  • The index is prepared by NGO World Vision India and research institute IFMR LEAD to measure and tracks children’s well-being comprehensively.
  • The index contains 24 indicators based on three key dimensions of healthy individual development, positive relationships and protective contexts.
C-DOT’s latest innovations
  • C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi): It is based on the optimal utilization of wireless and satellite communication to extend connectivity to the unserved areas including the remote islands and difficult terrains
  • It will help in meeting the demands of applications like IPTV, HD Video Streaming, Online Gaming and host of other cloud-based services that necessitate the seamless availability of high bandwidth
Indonesia’s new capital:The capital of Indonesia, which is Jakarta at present, will be relocated to the province of East Kalimantan on the lesser populated island of Borneo.


  •  Found in Pakkamalai Reserve Forests(Tamil Nadu)
  • It is a critically endangered species.
  • The species is known to be endemic to India.
Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Anti microbial resistance is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc.) against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics) that are used to treat infections.
  • As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others.
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
  • It is now regarded as a major threat to public health across the globe.
 H1N1 Virus(Swine flu)
 H1N1 Virus(Swine flu)
  • a highlAntimicrobial Resistancey contagious respiratory disease in pigs caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses
  • Transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans is uncommon. However, the swine influenza virus can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine influenza viruses.
  • Symptoms are cough, fever, soar throat , stuffy or runny nose, headache, body ache etc.
REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation)
REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation)
  • Context: The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme being carried out in the himalayan states jointly by Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has been extended till July 2020.
  • It is a mechanism
  • It is under negotiation under UNFCC since 2005
  • objective is to mitigate climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries.
  • India did not participated in UN-REDD
  • REDDD+ (Defined in Bali Action Plan, 2007, CoP13)
  • What is the difference between REDD and REDD+?
  1. REDD = “reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries”
  2. REDD+ (or REDD-plus) = to “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries”
  • REDD+ is essentially a vehicle to financially reward developing countries for their verified efforts to reduce emissions and enhance removals of greenhouse gases.
  • India favours REDD+
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known commonly as the Iran deal, is an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany),and the European Union

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