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Wednesday, August 28, 2019

western Ghats and it's conservation

Why western Ghats important?
western Ghats
western Ghats

  • Western Ghats host India’s richest wilderness in 13 national parks and several sanctuaries and home of many endangered plants and animals.
  • Recognised by UNESCO as one of the world’s eight most important biodiversity hotspots
  •  Western Ghats acts as a huge water supplier to six states( Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, and southern Gujarat) and also sourcing to numerous rivers, including the Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery.
western Ghats conservation
  •  Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) was constituted by the Central Government, under the chairmanship of Madhav Gadgil.
  • WGEEP issued recommendations for the preservation of the fragile western peninsular region.
Highlights of the Report:
  • entire stretch of the Western Ghats should be declared as Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA).
  •  division of region into three zones – ESZ1, ESZ2, ESZ3 and gave a broad outline of certain restrictions for each zone.
  • no new polluting industries (red and orange) were to be permitted in ESZ1 and ESZ2 and gradual phasing out of such existing industries by 2016
  • Complete ban on mining in ESZ1 and regulation of mining in ESZ-2.
  •  bottom to top approach be followed for conservation of Western Ghats.

Kasturirangan Panel: It was set up in 2012 to advise the government on Gadgil Committee Report.
  • Divide the Western Ghats into Natural Landscape and Cultural Landscape
  • It proposed the demarcation of ESZ be done at the village level.
  • Only red category (heavy polluting) industries were restricted.
  • Hydro power project would be given the green signal on a case to case basis, post assessment of its benefits and the possible damage it could cause
NGT action:-
  •  six Western Ghats States, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat have been restrained by the NGT from giving environmental clearance to activities that may adversely impact the eco-sensitive areas of the mountain ranges.
  •  panel directed that the extent of Eco-Sensitive Zones of Western Ghats, which was notified by the Central government earlier, should not be reduced, in view of the recent floods in Kerala
  • any alteration in the draft notification of zones may seriously affect the environment.
  • India has realized the importance of involving local communities in forest protection and management.
  • developed several policies and implemented large programmes such as Joint Forest Management programme.
  • India has multiple institutional approaches to forest protection and management.


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