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Friday, August 30, 2019

Prelims booster(Micro notes), current affairs with static portion -30 August 2019


Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Anti microbial resistance is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc.) against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics) that are used to treat infections.
  • As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others.
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
  • It is now regarded as a major threat to public health across the globe.


 H1N1 Virus(Swine flu)
 H1N1 Virus(Swine flu)
  • a highlAntimicrobial Resistancey contagious respiratory disease in pigs caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses
  • Transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans is uncommon. However, the swine influenza virus can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine influenza viruses.
  • Symptoms are cough, fever, soar throat , stuffy or runny nose, headache, body ache etc.


REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation)
REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation)
  • Context: The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme being carried out in the himalayan states jointly by Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has been extended till July 2020.
  • It is a mechanism
  • It is under negotiation under UNFCC since 2005
  • objective is to mitigate climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries.
  • India did not participated in UN-REDD
  • REDDD+ (Defined in Bali Action Plan, 2007, CoP13)
  • What is the difference between REDD and REDD+?
  1. REDD = “reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries”
  2. REDD+ (or REDD-plus) = to “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries”
  • REDD+ is essentially a vehicle to financially reward developing countries for their verified efforts to reduce emissions and enhance removals of greenhouse gases.
  • India favours REDD+
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known commonly as the Iran deal, is an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany),and the European Union
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