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Wednesday, July 31, 2019

General Studies:-IV(GS-IV)

• Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;
dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the
lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and
educational institutions in inculcating values.

Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

Aptitude and foundation values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship,
objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

• Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;
Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of
Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds,
challenges of corruption.

• Case Studies on above issues.






Sunday, July 28, 2019

General Studies:-I(GS-I)

upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download
        upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download
General Studies:-I(GS-I)



Art & Culture:-

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

History:-

  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.


History:-


  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.



History:-


  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism,capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.


Social Science:-

  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.


Social Science:-
  • Role of women and women’s organization. 

Social Science:-

  • population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues.


Geography:-
  •  urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

Geography:-

  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent);factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)


Geography:-

  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.,geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.




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General Studies:-III(GS-III)

upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download

        upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download

                                                                    



General Studies:-III(GS-III)








Economy (Growth & resources mobilization):-

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.


Economy(Budget):-

  • Government Budgeting.


Economy(Investment & infrastructure):-
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. 
  • Investment models.

Economy(Liberalization):-
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.


Agriculture( infrastructure and e-technology):-
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

Agriculture(MSP & related issue):- 
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security;Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

Agriculture(land Reform):- 
  • Land reforms in India.

Science & Technology(Awareness & Indians achievement):-
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life• Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.


Environment:- 
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.

Security(extremists):-
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.



 Security(State & non state actor,Challenges):-
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention  
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

Security(Forces and their mandate):-

  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.






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Saturday, July 27, 2019

General Studies:-II(GS-II)


upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download
upsc syllabus 2019 pdf download





     General Studies:-II(GS-II)






Polity(Basics of indian constitution):-

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. 
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries


Polity(The Executive):- 

  • Structure,organization,function. Ministries and departments(union and state government)

Polity(The Legislature):-

  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

Polity(Federalism & local governance):- 

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Polity(Separation of power):- 

  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

Polity(Bodies):-

  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies. 
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies


Welfare(Policy & scheme):- 

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Poverty and hunger issues. 


welfare(Sectors and services ):- 

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,Education, Human Resources.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


Governance(Accountability & E-Governance):-

  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications,models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.


  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders. 
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.


International Relation(Neighbors):-

  •  India and its neighborhood- relations.


International Relation( non-Neighbors):-

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests.
  •  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.


International Relation( Institutions,groupings &agreements):-

  • important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.





 or 

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Bombay Plan

The Bombay Plan
A key principle of the Bombay plan was that the economy couldn't grow while not government intervention and regulation.

A small group of powerful business leaders in Bombay drew up and revealed in January 1944, an inspiration for the economic development of india

Proposed state intervention in the economic development of the nation after independence.

The basic objectives were a doubling of the (then current) output of the agricultural sector and a five-fold growth in the industrial sector, both within the framework of a 100
billion Rupee (£72b, $18b) investment (of which 44.8% was slated for industry) over 15 years.

Under the belief that the fledgling Indian industries wouldn't be able to compete in a free-market economy, the Plan proposed that the future government protect indigenous industries against foreign
competition in local markets.
active role by government in deficit financing and planning equitable growth, a transition from an agrarian to an industrialized society, and—in the event that the private sector could not immediately
do so—the establishment of important industries as public sector enterprises while at the same time ensuring a marketplace for the output through planned purchases.

The Bombay set up reaped criticism from all quarters: the far left criticized the capitalistic background of the Plan’s authors or asserted that the plan didn't go far enough.
The far right foresaw it as a harbinger of a socialist society, and considered it a violation of the agreements of the United Nations “Bretton Woods Conference”.
The plan offers a comprehensive program of mass education, including primary, secondary and vocational and university schooling.
Provision is also created for adult education and scientific training and research.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Causes of flood in Assam


Image result for Causes of flood in Assam
Causes of flood in Assam



Assam continues to be on edge as the flood, which has almost become an annual calamity. According to the Rastriya Barh Ayog (RBA), 31.05 lakh hectares of the total 78.523 lakh hectares area of the state is prone to frequent floods. And the reasons behind this high flood prone area percentage are both man-made and natural.

Natural factor:-

  • Topography of Assam and meteorological factor (high rainfall) are the big reason behind Assam floods every year.
  • Assam and some other parts of the northeastern region are prone to frequent earthquakes, which causes landslides. The landslides and earthquakes send in a lot of debris in the rivers, causing the river bed to rise.
  • Assam has also faced bank erosion around the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers as well as their tributaries. It is estimated that annually nearly 8000 hectares land is lost to erosion. Bank erosion has also affected the width of the Brahmaputra river and it's .tributaries.
The man-made factors :-

  • habitation, deforestation, population growth in catchment areas 
  • (including in China), encroachment of river banks and wetlands, lack of drainage, unplanned urban growth, hill cutting — which lead to higher sedimentation. For example, the sediment deposition itself creates temporary sandbars or river islands.
  • The dams that are being built are further creating disasters.
  • The wetlands forests and local water bodies are being systematically destroyed which in turn is adding to the disaster vulnerability of the area



Measures needed:-
Realising the severity of the problem, flood control measures in Assam started in 1954 with the announcement of the National Policy for Flood by the Government of India.
  • Construction of Embankments and Flood walls
  • River training and bank protection works
  • Anti erosion and town protection works
  • River channelization with pro siltation device
  • Drainage improvement/ Sluices
  • Raised Platform
  • Flood forecasting and warning
  • Flood zoning
  • Interlinking of rivers may be one option, whereby the excess water from the flood-prone eastern India can be diverted to the water-scarce regions. However, for that a thorough environmental impact assessment is needed.
  • Government of Assam is planning to dredge the Brahmaputra from Sadiya to Dhubri to increase its storage capacity and mitigate flood-induced damages.
  • An “integrated basin management” system that should ideally bring in all the basin-sharing countries on board.
  • It is important to monitor the run-off and hydrological data in the upper catchment areas, particularly in Tibet before the onset of the monsoon for which cooperation at the regional, national and international levels is required.
  • On the basis of these data, warning can be issued well in advance so that people and livestock can be moved to safer places.




Sources: various News paper,insightias
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Day-01,prelims-2020

International Whaling Commission (IWC).
  •  set up  to the provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry
  • Convention signed in Washington, D.C., United States, on December 2, 1946.
  • 1994, it created the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary surrounding the continent of Antarctica
  • Only two such sanctuaries have been designated by IWC till date. other,Indian Ocean Whale Sanctuary by the tiny island nation of the Seychelles.
Inner Line Permit (ILP)
  • official travel document required by Indian citizens residing outside certain “protected” states while entering them.
  • Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland
 New Space India Limited (NSIL)
  • Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) new commercial arm ,officially inaugurated in Bengaluru

 Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS)
  • commitment to remove conflict diamonds from the global supply chain,
  • participants actively prevent 99.8% of the worldwide trade.


Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Land Revenue Systems in British India


Land Revenue Systems in British India
Land Revenue Systems in British India


 Land Revenue Systems in British India is always a important topic for Prelims and Mains. And as per the new syllabus ‘land reforms in India’ is specifically mentioned for GS Mains, and the relevance just got multiplied.We need to focus multiple land revenue systems and their features.

Land Revenue Systems Before British Rule:-


In the early history of all countries, land was either the only or the main source of revenue.But the ownership pattern of land had witnessed changes over centuries.During Kingship, land was divided into Jagirs, Jagirs were alloted to Jagirdars, these Jagirdars divided the land they got and allocated to sub-ordinate Zamindars.
Zamindars made peasants cultivate the land, in-return collected part of their revenue as tax.

Land Revenue Systems in British India:
Three major systems of land revenue collection existed in India.they were
  • Zaminidari
  • Ryotwari 
  • Mahalwari.

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Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Food and Agriculture organisation(FAO)




Food and Agriculture organisation(FAO)
Food and Agriculture organisation(FAO)





Food and Agriculture organisation(FAO):-

  • It is a UN body
  • Established in 1945 and its headquarters is in Rome, Italy.
  • FAO is also a source of information and data, and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, guaranteeing good nutrition and food security for all.
  • There are a total of 197 members comprising 194 member nations, one member organization and 2 associate members.
  • India is a member of FAO

Monday, July 22, 2019

Early Medieval India, 750-1200 questions


Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the
rise of Rajputs
The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
Indian Feudalism; Agrarian economy and urban settlements; Trade and commerce
Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order; Condition of women
Indian science and technology




Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs:-
  • Bring out the salient features of the polity & social structure of the Rajputs. To what extent were they responsible for the weakness of the Rajputs to the foreign invaders?
  • Achieving dominance in the south of the Vindhyas did not satisfy the ambitions of the Rashtrakutas, they also wanted to achieve dominance over the Gangetic PIains.” Elaborate and comment.
  • “The inferior cavalry of the Rajputs was not the only cause of their defeat at the hands of Turko-Afghans and Mughal.” Comment. 



The Cholas: administration, village economy and society


  • Describe the village administration of the Chola period as known from the Uttaramerur inscriptions
  • Describe the development of Chola power under Rajaraja and Rajendra I. Form an estimate of their cultural contributions
  • What were the salient features of the bureaucratic machinery of the Cholas?
  • Critically assess the period of the Cholas in the history of South India
  • Write a short essay on: “Local self-government under the Cholas.”
  •  Discuss the contribution of Rajaraja I and Rajendra I for the expansion of the Chola Empire. Analyse the causes and impact of the naval expeditions of the Cholas
  • Assess the importance of the Cholas in the history of South India. 
  • Critically evaluate the achievements of the Cholas. 
  • Were the Chola village assemblies democratic in nature? Give reasons for your answer
  • The Cholas are said to have established a strong and well organized administration with an element of self-government at the local level. Do you agree? Give reasons.
  •  How far can the village assemblies or communities under the Cholas be really called democratic?
  • Assess the contribution of the Cholas in the expansion of Indian culture outside India. 
  • Evaluate the role of nadu and nagaram in the growth of urbanisation under the Cholas
  • Evaluating various theories regarding the Chola State, throw light on its village assemblies



Indian Feudalism; Agrarian economy and urban settlements; Trade and commerce 

  • “Land charters of north India (c. A-D. 750-1200).” Comment. 
  • Write a short essay on: “The Samanta System”
  • Write a short essay on: “Applicability of the term ‘Indian Feudalism’ to early Medieval Society.”
  •   To what extent ‘monetary anaemia’ aicted the erstwhile commercial economy during the early medieval period?
  • What kind of changes were visualized by historians on Indian feudalism? Examine critically. 
  • Critically analyse the agricultural economy from 750 to 1200 CE.
  • Do the evidences of land ownership at our disposal support the theory of the prevalence of feudalism in early medieval India?



Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order; Condition of women 


  • Give an account of the society in Northern and Central India since the death of Harsha to the Muslim conquest of North India
  • Write a short essay on: “Social structure of the Rajputs.”

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Sunday, July 21, 2019

Saturday, July 20, 2019

HISTORICAL UNDERPINNINGS, EVOLUTION, FEATURES, AMENDMENTS, SIGNIFICANT PROVISIONS AND BASIC STRUCTURE questions



This questions(year) were asked in previous years and some important questions that may ask




  • Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy. (2015)
  • Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution.[2013]
  •  To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity.[2016]
  • Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the present circumstances?[2016]
  •  What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution?[2016]
  • Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy. (2017)
  • What do you understand by the concept "freedom of speech and expression"? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.(2017)
  •  Starting from inventing the ' basic structure' doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideas of democracy.[2014]